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© Rune Midtgaard


Taxonomy of the family Anguidae
Bibliography of the genus Anguis
Biodiversity of the family Anguidae








Genus
Anguis

Slowworms

Blindschleichen

Stålorme

1758 Anguis Linnaeus (type species: Anguis fragilis Linnaeus 1758)
1831 ? Siguana Gray (type species: Siguana ottonis Gray 1831; syn. Wermuth 1969)
1839 Dorfia Gray (type species: Dorfia punctata Gray 1839; syn. Wermuth 1969)
1840 Otophis Wiegmann [substitute name for Siguana Gray 1831]
Contents: 5 species, of which 1 (20.0%) is endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: The two species colchica and graeca were revalidated as separate species from fragilis by Gvozdik, Jandzik, Lymberakis, Jablonski & Moravec (2010) after the two latter forms had been included in fragilis since their first descriptions. The three species are probably mutually parapatric, but the exact distribution limits of each species still needs to be fully resolved. There are some doubtful records of fragilis from N. Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunesia) and Israel. Macey, Schulte, Larson, Tuniyev, Orlov & Papenfuss (1999) presented evidence that Ophisaurus, as then understood (i.e., incl. Dopasia, Hyalosaurus, Pseudopus), was polyphyletic, and they included all species of these genera in Anguis.
Distribution: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands), Hungary, Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, North Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey (incl. European Turkey), Ukraine, United Kingdom (Channel Islands, England, Scotland, Wales).

Anguis cephallonica

Peloponnese Slowworm

Peloponnes-Blindschleiche

Peloponnesisk Stålorm

1894 Anguis fragilis var. cephallonica Werner
Anguis cephallonicus Gasc (ed.) 1997
1937 Anguis fragilis peloponnesiacus Stepanek (Gasc (ed.) 1997)
Anguis peloponnesiacus Mayer, Grillitsch & Cabena 1991

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym or subspecies of fragilis. Revalidated as a separate species (as peloponnesiacus) by Mayer, Grillitsch & Cabena (1991).
Distribution: Greece (Ionian Islands [Cephalonia, Ithaki, Lefkas, Zakynthos], Peloponnese).


Anguis cephallonica
© Henrik Bringsøe

Anguis colchica

Eastern Slowworm, Colchican Slowworm

Östliche Blindschleiche

Østlig Stålorm

1837 Anguis incerta Krynicki [nomen oblitum] (Gvozdik, Jandzik, Lymberakis, Jablonski & Moravec 2010)
Anguis colchica incerta Gvozdik, Jandzik, Lymberakis, Jablonski & Moravec 2010
1840 Otophis eryx var. colchica Nordmann [nomen protectum] (Gvozdik, Jandzik, Lymberakis, Jablonski & Moravec 2010)
Anguis fragilis colchicus Stepanek 1937
Anguis colchica Gvozdik, Jandzik, Lymberakis, Jablonski & Moravec 2010
1872 Anguis orientalis Anderson (Gvozdik, Jandzik, Lymberakis, Jablonski & Moravec 2010)
Anguis colchica orientalis Gvozdik, Jandzik, Lymberakis, Jablonski & Moravec 2010

Remarks: Previously included in fragilis. The name incerta was previously regarded as a synonym of A. f. fragilis (e.g., Wermuth 1969). Although incerta is an older name than colchica (for which reason the former name has nomenclatural priority), colchica is considered a nomen protectum, due to the prevailing use of this name, whereas incerta is considered a nomen oblitum (Gvozdik, Jandzik, Lymberakis, Jablonski & Moravec 2010). Some older records of colchica may refer to graeca. See further remarks under genus.
Distribution: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Hungary, Iran, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, North Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Turkey (incl. European Turkey), Ukraine.


Anguis colchica
© Henrik Bringsøe

Anguis fragilis

Western European Slowworm, Common European Slowworm

Westliche Blindschleiche

Vesteuropæisk Stålorm

1758 Anguis fragilis Linnaeus
1758 Anguis eryx Linnaeus [part] (Wermuth 1969)
1768 Anguis clivica Laurenti (Boulenger 1885)
1768 Anguis lineata Laurenti (Boulenger 1885)
1789 Anguis orvet Lacepede [substitute name for Anguis fragilis Linnaeus 1758] (Wermuth 1969)
1825 Anguis gamma Roubieu (Boulenger 1887)
1831 ? Siguana ottonis Gray (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1832 Anguis besseri Andrzejowski [nomen rejectum] (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1962): Opinion 642)
1832 Anguis vittatus Gravenhorst [nomen nudum] (Schreiber 1875)
1837 Anguis fragilis var. albiventris Bonaparte
1837 Anguis fragilis var. nigriventris Bonaparte
1839 Dorfia punctata Gray (Boulenger 1885)
1857 Anguis fragilis var. fusca De Betta
1857 Anguis fragilis var. grisea De Betta
1857 Anguis fragilis var. lineata De Betta [not Anguis lineata Laurenti 1768?] (Schreiber 1875)
1857 Anguis fragilis var. vulgaris De Betta
1862 Anguis fragilis var. coeruleo-maculata Jeitteles
1868 ? Anguis fragilis var. tympanifex Gistel [substitute name for Siguana ottonis Gray 1831] (Wermuth 1969)
1888 Anguis fragilis var. caeruleoventris Geisenheiner
1888 Anguis fragilis var. cyaneopunctata Geisenheiner
1897 Anguis fragilis var. nigra Dürigen
1897 Anguis fragilis var. ocellata Dürigen
1897 Anguis fragilis var. punctata Dürigen [not Dorfia punctata Gray 1839?] (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1897 Anguis fragilis var. striolata Dürigen
1897 Anguis fragilis var. vittata Dürigen [part] [not Anguis vittatus Gravenhorst 1832?] (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)

Remarks: Previously included cephallonica, colchica, graeca, and veronensis. Expected to occur in Lithuania, although not verified at present (Gvozdík, Harca, Hánová, Jablonski, Pupins, Ceirans & Paasikunnas 2021). There are some doubtful records from N. Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia) and Israel (Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch 1996). See further remarks under genus.
Introduced to: Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom (Channel Islands).
Distribution: Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom (Channel Islands, England, Scotland, Wales).


Anguis fragilis
© Rune Midtgaard


Anguis fragilis
© Henrik Bringsøe

Anguis graeca

Greek Slowworm

Griechische Blindschleiche

Græsk Stålorm

1881 Anguis fragilis var. graeca Bedriaga
Anguis graeca Gvozdik, Jandzik, Lymberakis, Jablonski & Moravec 2010

Remarks: Previously included in fragilis (e.g., Wermuth 1969).
Distribution: Albania, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands, Ionian Islands), Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia.


Anguis graeca
© Henrik Bringsøe

Anguis veronensis

Italian Slowworm

Italienische Blindschleiche

Italiensk Stålorm

1818 Anguis veronensis Pollini
1826 Anguis cinerea Risso (Reptile Database, viewed 31 Dec 2013)
1826 Anguis bicolor Risso (Reptile Database, viewed 31 Dec 2013)
1897 Anguis fragilis var. lineomaculata Dürigen [substitute name for Anguis cinerea Risso 1826]
1897 Anguis fragilis var. ventrimaculata Dürigen [substitute name for Anguis cinerea Risso 1826]

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Gvozdik, Benkovskı, Crottini, Bellati, Moravec, Romano, Sacchi & Jandzik (2013). Previously regarded as a synonym of fragilis, although overlooked by several earlier works (e.g., Mertens & Wermuth 1960).
Distribution: France, Italy, San Marino, Switzerland.


Anguis veronensis
© Henrik Bringsøe