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Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: December 31st, 2022.

Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Coluber
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae


North American Racer

Nordamerikanische Schwarznatter

Nordamerikansk Pilsnog

1758 Coluber Linnaeus (type species: Coluber constrictor Linnaeus 1758)
1817 Scoliophis Davis, Bigelow & Gray (type species: #Scoliophis atlanticus = Coluber constrictor Linnaeus 1758)
1853 Bascanion Baird in Baird & Girard (type species: Coluber constrictor Linnaeus 1758)
Contents: 1 species, which is not endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Other common names:
Holarctic Whip Snakes, Holarctic Racers (used when the genus also included Old World species)
Remarks: Now restricted to contain a single species. Previously included the species now placed in Argyrogena, Bamanophis, Dolichophis, Hemerophis, Hemorrhois, Hierophis, Orientocoluber, and Platyceps. The genera Masticophis and Ptyas have been synonymized with Coluber by some authors (see remarks under these genera). Apparently, the common names "racer" and "whip snake" are used randomly for snakes of the genera mentioned above, with the exception of C. constrictor, which is generally referred to as the North American Racer.
Distribution: As for the single species.

Coluber constrictor

North American Racer, Eastern Racer

Nordamerikanische Schwarznatter

Nordamerikansk Pilsnog

1758 Coluber constrictor Linnaeus
1817 Scoliophis atlanticus Davis, Bigalow & Gray
1823 Coluber flaviventris Say
Coluber constrictor flaviventris Garman 1883
1852 Coluber mormon Baird & Girard
Coluber constrictor mormon Van Denburgh & Slevin 1921
1853 Bascanion foxii Baird & Girard
Coluber constrictor foxi Schmidt 1953
1853 Bascanion fremonti Baird & Girard (Williams 1962)
1853 Bascanion vetustus Baird & Girard (Schmidt 1953)
1862 Bascanion anthicum Cope
Coluber constrictor anthicus Dunn & Wood 1939
1863 Coluber oaxaca Jan
Coluber constrictor oaxaca Wilson 1966
1895 Zamenis conirostris Cope (Smith & Taylor 1945)
1895 Zamenis stejnegerianus Cope (Wilson 1966, 1978)
Coluber constrictor stejnegerianus Muliak & Muliak 1942
1934 Coluber ortenburgeri Stuart (Etheridge 1952a; Wilson 1978)
1939 Coluber constrictor priapus Dunn & Wood
1952 Coluber constrictor hasti Bell (Wilson 1978)
1953 Coluber constrictor paludicola Auffenberg & Babbitt
1955 Coluber constrictor helvigularis Auffenberg
1970 Coluber constrictor etheridgei Wilson
1970 Coluber constrictor latrunculus Wilson

Other common names:
anthicus: Buttermilk Racer
constrictor: Northern Black Racer
etheridgei: Tan Racer
flaviventris: Eastern Yellow-bellied Racer
foxi: Blue Racer
helvigularis: Brown-chinned Racer
latrunculus: Black-masked Racer
mormon: Western Yellow-bellied Racer
oaxaca: Mexican Racer, Southern Racer
paludicola: Everglades Racer
priapus: Southern Black Racer
Remarks: Fitch, Brown & Parker (1981) suggested recognition of mormon as a separate species, but the results of Corn & Bury (1986) did not support this, and most subsequent publications have retained it as a subspecies of constrictor (e.g., Greene 1984; Corn & Bury 1986; Dixon 2000). Although previously reported from Durango (e.g., Smith 1971; Wilson 1978), presence in the state is undocumented (Webb 2001). Smith (1971) concluded that all Pacific slope records from Mexico (Colima, Oaxaca) appear to be erroneous.
Introduced to: Bahamas (Grand Bahama).
Distribution: Belize, Canada (British Columbia, Ontario, Saskatchewan), Guatemala, Mexico (Baja California Norte, Chiapas, Coahuila, Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Veracruz), USA (Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York [incl. Long Island], North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming).

Coluber constrictor
© Rune Midtgaard