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Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: December 31st, 2022.

Taxonomy of the family Phrynosomatidae
Bibliography of the genus Holbrookia
Biodiversity of the family Phrynosomatidae


Lesser Earless Lizards

Kleine Taubleguane

Små Døvleguaner, Øreløse Leguaner

1851 Holbrookia Girard (type species: Holbrookia maculata Girard 1851)
Contents: 6 species, of which 1 (16.7%) is endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Previously included Cophosaurus.
Distribution: USA, Mexico.
Reported from: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Zacatecas), USA (Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Wyoming).

Holbrookia approximans

Blue-bellied Earless Lizard, (Speckled Earless Lizard)

Blaubäuchiger Taubleguan

Blåbuget Døvleguan

1858 Holbrookia approximans Baird
Holbrookia maculata approximans Stejneger 1890
1921 Holbrookia maculata campi Schmidt (Schmidt 1953)
1921 Holbrookia dickersonae Schmidt (Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013)
Holbrookia maculata dickersonae Smith & Mittleman 1943
1921 Holbrookia pulchra Schmidt (Lemos-Espinal & Smith 2007)
Holbrookia maculata pulchra Smith 1946

Other common names:
approximans: Speckled Earless Lizard
dickersonae: Dickerson's Earless Lizard
pulchra: Huachuca Earless Lizard
Remarks: Regarded as a separate species by most authors (e.g., Lemos-Espinal, Smith & Chiszar 2000; Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013), however, some authors (e.g., Queiroz & Reeder in Crother (ed.) 2008; Jones & Lovich (eds.) 2009) have retained approximans as a subspecies of maculata.
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Sonora, Zacatecas), USA (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Utah).

Holbrookia elegans

Mexican Earless Lizard, Elegant Earless Lizard, Pacific Earless Lizard

Mexikanischer Taubleguan

Mexicansk Døvleguan

1874 Holbrookia elegans Bocourt
Holbrookia maculata elegans Smith & Taylor 1950
1921 Holbrookia thermophila Barbour (Lemos-Espinal & Smith 2007)
Holbrookia elegans thermophila Smith 1935
Holbrookia maculata thermophila Smith 1946

Other common names:
elegans: Canyon Earless Lizard
thermophila: Sonoran Earless Lizard, Western Earless Lizard
Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Lowe (1964), which was supported by Adest (1978) and Wilgenbusch & Queiroz (2000) and followed by most subsequent works (e.g., Smith, Lemos-Espinal & Chiszar 2004; Brennan & Holycross 2006; Lemos-Espinal & Smith 2007).
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Durango, Sinaloa, Sonora), USA (Arizona, New Mexico).

Holbrookia elegans
© Rune Midtgaard

Holbrookia lacerata

Northern Spot-tailed Earless Lizard

Nördlicher Schwanzflecken-Taubleguan

Nordlig Plethalet Døvleguan

1880 Holbrookia lacerata Cope
Holbrookia maculata lacerata Stejneger 1890

Remarks: Previously included subcaudalis.
Distribution: USA (Texas).

Holbrookia maculata

Common Lesser Earless Lizard, (Speckled Earless Lizard)

Gefleckter Taubleguan

Plettet Døvleguan

1851 Holbrookia maculata Girard
1883 Holbrookia maculata flavilenta Cope (Lemos-Espinal & Smith 2007a, 2007b)
1935 Holbrookia bunkeri Smith (Williams & Smith 1958)
Holbrookia maculata bunkeri Williams & Smith 1958
1943 Holbrookia maculata ruthveni Smith
1956 Holbrookia maculata perspicua Axtell

Other common names:
bunkeri: Bunker's Earless Lizard
flavilenta: Striped Earless Lizard
maculata: Great Plains Earless Lizard, Northern Earless Lizard
perspicua: Prairie Earless Lizard, Eastern Earless Lizard
ruthveni: Bleached Earless Lizard
Remarks: Previously included approximans and elegans.
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua), USA (Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Wyoming).

Holbrookia propinqua

Keeled Earless Lizard

Gekielter Taubleguan

Kølskællet Døvleguan

1852 Holbrookia propinqua Baird & Girard
Holbrookia maculata propinqua Cope 1875
1932 Holbrookia propinqua stonei Harper (Axtell 1983)
1950 Holbrookia propinqua piperata Smith & Burger

Other common names:
piperata: Southern Keeled Earless Lizard
propinqua: Northern Keeled Earless Lizard
Distribution: Mexico (Tamaulipas, Veracruz), USA (Texas).

Holbrookia subcaudalis

Tamaulipan Spot-tailed Earless Lizard, Southern Earless Lizard

Südlicher Schwanzflecken-Taubleguan

Sydlig Plethalet Døvleguan

1956 Holbrookia lacerata subcaudalis Axtell
Holbrookia subcaudalis Collins 1991

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of lacerata (e.g., Axtell 1956; Midtgaard 2019). Raised to species status by Collins (1991), supported by Hibbits, Ryberg, Harvey, Voelker, Lawing, Adams, Neuharth, Dittmer, Duran, Wolaver, Pierre, Labay & LaDuc (2019). Tamaulipas is included in the distribution, based on Hibbits & al. (2019), however, these authors did not refer to any voucher specimens. Farr, Lazcano & Lavín-Murcio (2013) noted that they were not aware of any confirmed records of the species from Tamaulipas.
Distribution: Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas), USA (Texas).