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Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: December 31st, 2022.

Taxonomy of the family Leiocephalidae
Bibliography of the genus Leiocephalus
Biodiversity of the genus Leiocephalus


Curly-tailed Lizards, Curlytails, Curly-tailed Iguanas, Crested Keeled Lizards



1827 Leiocephalus Gray (type species: Leiocephalus carinatus Gray 1827)
Contents: 24 living species, of which 23 (95.8%) are endemic. In addition to this, 2 species are considered extinct (eremitus, herminieri), both of which were endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Distribution: West Indies.
Reported from: Bahamas (incl. Great Inagua Bank, [incl. Great Inagua], Little Bahama Bank, East Plana Cay), Cayman Islands (Cayman Brac, Grand Cayman, Little Cayman), Cuba (incl. Isla de la Juventud), Dominican Republic (incl. Isla Alto Velo), Haiti (incl. Ile de la Gonâve, Île-à-Vache), Turks & Caicos Islands (Caicos Islands, Turks Islands).

Leiocephalus altavelensis

Alto Velo Curlytail


Alto Velo-krølhaleleguan

1933 Leiocephalus altavelensis Noble & Hassler
Leiocephalus vinculum altavelensis Schwartz 1967

Remarks: Treated as a separate species by Henderson & Powell (2009), although they questioned the validity of altavelensis.
Distribution: Dominican Republic (Isla Alto Velo).

Leiocephalus barahonensis

Orange-bellied Curlytail

Orangebäuchiger Rollschwanzleguan

Orangebuget Krølhaleleguan

1921 Leiocephalus barahonensis Schmidt
1923 Leiocephalus beatanus Noble (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
Leiocephalus barahonensis beatanus Schwartz 1967
1934 Leiocephalus personatus aureus Cochran (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
1967 Leiocephalus barahonensis oxygaster Schwartz

Remarks: Previously included altavelensis.
Distribution: Dominican Republic, Haiti.

Leiocephalus carinatus

Saw-scaled Curlytail, Cuban Curly-tailed Lizard

Gesägter Rollschwanzleguan

Savskællet Krølhaleleguan

1827 Leiocephalus carinatus Gray
1837 Holotropis microlophus Cocteau (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
1845 Leiocephalus macleayii Gray (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
1901 Leiocephalus virescens Stejneger (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
Leiocephalus carinatus virescens Barbour 1937
1935 Leiocephalus carinatus armouri Barbour & Shreve
1936 Leiocephalus carinatus coryi Schmidt
1936 Leiocephalus carinatus hodsdoni Schmidt
1956 Leiocephalus carinatus aquarius Schwartz & Ogren
1957 Leiocephalus carinatus granti Rabb
1959 Leiocephalus carinatus cayensis Schwartz
1959 Leiocephalus carinatus labrossytus Schwartz
1959 Leiocephalus carinatus microcyon Schwartz
1959 Leiocephalus carinatus mogotensis Schwartz
1959 Leiocephalus carinatus zayasi Schwartz

Other common names:
armouri: Northern Curly-tailed Lizard, Bahaman Curly-tailed Lizard
granti: Lesser Cayman Islands Curly-tailed Lizard
hodsoni: Ragged Island Lion Lizard
virescens: Exuma Islands Curly-tailed Lizard
Remarks: Previously included varius.
Introduced to: USA (Florida).
Distribution: Bahamas (incl. Little Bahama Bank), Cayman Islands (Cayman Brac, Grand Cayman, Little Cayman), Cuba (incl. Isla de la Juventud).

Leiocephalus cubensis

Cuban Brown Curlytail

Kubanischer Brauner Rollschwanzleguan

Cubansk Brun Krølhaleleguan

1840 Tropidurus cubensis Gray
Leiocephalus cubensis Stejneger 1917
1857 Holotropis vittatus Hallowell (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
1959 Leiocephalus cubensis gigas Schwartz
1959 Leiocephalus cubensis pambasileus Schwartz
1959 Leiocephalus cubensis paraphrus Schwartz
1970 Leiocephalus cubensis minor Garrido

Distribution: Cuba (incl. Isla de la Juventud).

Leiocephalus endomychus

Hinche Curlytail



1967 Leiocephalus vinculum endomychus Schwartz
Leiocephalus endomychus Pregill 1992

Distribution: Haiti.

Leiocephalus eremitus

Navassa Curlytail



1868 Liocephalus eremitus Cope
Leiocephalus eremitus Barbour 1937

Remarks: Extinct (Henderson & Powell 2009).
Distribution: Navassa.

Leiocephalus greenwayi

East Plana Curlytail


East Plana-krølhaleleguan

1935 Leiocephalus greenwayi Barbour & Shreve

Distribution: Bahamas (East Plana Cay).

Leiocephalus herminieri

Martinique Curlytail



1837 Holotropis herminieri Dumeril & Bibron
Leiocephalus herminieri Boulenger 1885

Remarks: Regarded as extinct (Lorvelec, Pascal, Pavis & Feldman 2007). The origin of this species has also been suggested to be Trinidad or Guadeloupe, but Breuil (2002, 2003) demonstrated that it lived in Martinique.
Distribution: Martinique.

Leiocephalus inaguae

Inagua Curlytail



1931 Leiocephalus inaguae Cochran

Distribution: Bahamas (Great Inagua Bank: Great Inagua).

Leiocephalus loxogrammus

San Salvador Curlytail


San Salvador-krølhaleleguan

1887 Leiocephalus loxogrammus Cope
1935 Leiocephalus loxogrammus parnelli Barbour & Shreve

Distribution: Bahamas.

Leiocephalus lunatus

Hispaniolan Maskless Curlytail

Maskenloser Rollschwanzleguan

Maskeløs Krølhaleleguan

1934 Leiocephalus personatus lunatus Cochran
Leiocephalus lunatus Schwartz 1967
1934 Leiocephalus personatus louisae Cochran (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
Leiocephalus lunatus louisae Schwartz 1967
1939 Leiocephalus personatus arenicolor Mertens (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
Leiocephalus lunatus arenicolor Schwartz 1967
1967 Leiocephalus lunatus melaenascelis Schwartz
1967 Leiocephalus lunatus thomasi Schwartz
1969 Leiocephalus lunatus lewisi Schwartz

Distribution: Dominican Republic.

Leiocephalus macropus

Cuban Side-blotched Curlytail


Sideplettet Krølhaleleguan

1863 Liocephalus macropus Cope
Leiocephalus macropus Stejneger 1917
1958 Leiocephalus macropus immaculatus Hardy
1959 Leiocephalus macropus hoplites Zug
1959 Leiocephalus macropus hyacinthurus Zug
1959 Leiocephalus macropus koopmani Zug
1967 Leiocephalus macropus aegialus Schwartz & Garrido
1967 Leiocephalus macropus asbolomus Schwartz & Garrido
1967 Leiocephalus macropus phylax Schwartz & Garrido
1973 Leiocephalus macropus lenticulatus Garrido
1979 Leiocephalus macropus felinoi Garrido
1979 Leiocephalus macropus torrei Garrido

Distribution: Cuba (incl. Isla de la Juventud).

Leiocephalus melanochlorus

Tiburon Curlytail



1863 Liocephalus melanochlorus Cope
Leiocephalus melanochlorus Schwartz 1966
1966 Leiocephalus melanochlorus hypsistus Schwartz

Distribution: Haiti (incl. Île-à-Vache).

Leiocephalus onaneyi

Guantanamo Striped Curlytail



1973 Leiocephalus onaneyi Garrido
1973 Leiocephalus onaneyi Garrido

Distribution: Cuba.

Leiocephalus personatus

Hispaniolan Masked Curlytail, Rainbow Curlytail

Bunter Maskenleguan


1863 Liocephalus personatus Cope
Leiocephalus personatus Barbour 1935
1863 Liocephalus trigeminatus Cope (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
1932 Leiocephalus personatus mentalis Cochran
1932 Leiocephalus personatus scalaris Cochran
1939 Leiocephalus personatus pulcherrimus Mertens (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
1939 Leiocephalus personatus trujilloensis Mertens
1967 Leiocephalus personatus actites Schwartz
1967 Leiocephalus personatus agraulus Schwartz
1967 Leiocephalus personatus budeni Schwartz
1967 Leiocephalus personatus tarachodes Schwartz
1969 Leiocephalus personatus poikilometes Schwartz
1971 Leiocephalus personatus pyrrholaemus Schwartz
1982 Leiocephalus personatus socoensis Gali & Schwartz
1988 Leiocephalus personatus elattoprosopon Gali, Schwartz & Suarez

Introduced to: USA (Florida).
Distribution: Dominican Republic, Haiti.

Leiocephalus pratensis

Haitian Striped Curlytail

Haitianischer Gestreifter Rollschwanzleguan

Haitiansk Stribet Krølhaleleguan

1928 Hispaniolus pratensis Cochran
Leiocephalus pratensis Etheridge 1966
1979 Leiocephalus chimarus Schwartz (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)

Distribution: Haiti.

Leiocephalus psammodromus

Turks and Caicos Curlytail

Turks & Caicos-Rollschwanzleguan

Turks & Caicos-krølhaleleguan

1916 Leiocephalus psammodromus Barbour
1916 Liocephalus arenarius Barbour [not Steironotus arenarius Tschudi 1845] (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
1967 Leiocephalus arenarius aphretor Schwartz (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
Leiocephalus psammodromus aphretor Schwartz & Thomas 1975
1967 Leiocephalus arenarius apocrinus Schwartz (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
Leiocephalus psammodromus apocrinus Schwartz & Thomas 1975
1967 Leiocephalus arenarius cacodoxus Schwartz (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
Leiocephalus psammodromus cacodoxus Schwartz & Thomas 1975
1967 Leiocephalus arenarius hyphantus Schwartz (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
Leiocephalus psammodromus hyphantus Schwartz & Thomas 1975
1967 Leiocephalus arenarius mounax Schwartz (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
Leiocephalus psammodromus mounax Schwartz & Thomas 1975

Distribution: Turks & Caicos Islands (Caicos Islands, Turks Islands).

Leiocephalus punctatus

Crooked-Acklins Curlytail



1931 Leiocephalus carinatus punctatus Cochran
Leiocephalus punctatus Etheridge 1966
1935 Leiocephalus carinatus helenae Barbour & Shreve (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
1935 Leiocephalus carinatus picinus Barbour & Shreve (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)

Distribution: Bahamas.

Leiocephalus raviceps

Pallid Curlytail

Bleicher Rollschwanzleguan

Bleg Krølhaleleguan

1863 Liocephalus raviceps Cope
Leiocephalus raviceps Schwartz 1960
1960 Leiocephalus raviceps klinikowskii Schwartz
1960 Leiocephalus raviceps uzzelli Schwartz
1968 Leiocephalus raviceps jaumei Schwartz & Garrido
1973 Leiocephalus raviceps delavarai Garrido

Distribution: Cuba.

Leiocephalus rhutidira

Haitian Black-throated Curlytail

Schwarzkehliger Rollschwanzleguan

Sortstrubet Krølhaleleguan

1979 Leiocephalus rhutidira Schwartz

Distribution: Haiti.

Leiocephalus schreibersii

Red-sided Curly-tailed Iguana, Hispaniolan Khaki Curlytail


Rødsidet Krølhaleleguan

1837 Pristinotus schreibersii Gravenhorst
Leiocephalus schreibersii Cope 1868
1968 Leiocephalus schreibersi nesomorus Schwartz

Introduced to: USA (Florida).
Distribution: Dominican Republic, Haiti.

Leiocephalus schreibersii
© Rune Midtgaard

Leiocephalus semilineatus

Hispaniolan Pale-bellied Curlytail


Lysbuget Krølhaleleguan

1920 Leiocephalus semilineatus Dunn

Distribution: Dominican Republic, Haiti.

Leiocephalus sixtoi

Dune Curlytail



2016 Leiocephalus sixtoi Köhler, Bobadilla & Hedges

Distribution: Dominican Republic.

Leiocephalus stictigaster

Cuban Striped Curlytail

Kubanischer Gestreifter Rollschwanzleguan

Cubansk Stribet Krølhaleleguan

1959 Leiocephalus stictigaster Schwartz
1959 Leiocephalus stictigaster astictus Schwartz
1959 Leiocephalus stictigaster exotheotus Schwartz
1959 Leiocephalus stictigaster sierrae Schwartz
1960 Leiocephalus stictigaster lucianus Schwartz
1964 Leiocephalus stictigaster ophiplacodes Schwartz
1964 Leiocephalus stictigaster parasphex Schwartz
1968 Leiocephalus stictigaster celeustes Schwartz & Garrido
1968 Leiocephalus stictigaster gibarensis Schwartz & Garrido
1968 Leiocephalus stictigaster lipomator Schwartz & Garrido
1968 Leiocephalus stictigaster naranjoi Schwartz & Garrido
1975 Leiocephalus stictigaster septentrionalis Garrido

Distribution: Cuba (incl. Isla de la Juventud).

Leiocephalus varius

Grand Cayman Curlytail


Grand Cayman-krølhaleleguan

1887 Liocephalus varius Garman
Leiocephalus carinatus varius Barbour 1937

Remarks: Powell & Henderson (in Powell & Henderson [eds.]) (2012) treated varius as a separate species, however, Echternacht (2012, in the same publication) retained it as a subspecies of carinatus. Validity as a separate species was supported by McCranie (2011, 2015, 2018).
Introduced to: Honduras (Islas del Cisne [Isla Grande, Isla Pequeña]).
Distribution: Cayman Islands (Grand Cayman).

Leiocephalus vinculum

Gonâve Curlytail



1928 Leiocephalus vinculum Cochran

Remarks: Previously included endomychus.
Distribution: Haiti (Ile de la Gonâve).