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Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: December 31st, 2022.

Taxonomy of the family Geoemydidae
Bibliography of the genus Mauremys
Biodiversity of the family Geoemydidae


Stripe-necked Turtles, Eurasian Freshwater Turtles

Bachschildkröten, Eurasische Wasserschildkröten

Asiatisk-Palæarktiske Sumpskildpadder

1869 Mauremys Gray (type species: Emys fuliginosus Gray 1860)
1870 Emmenia Gray (type species: Emys grayi Günther 1869; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1870 Eryma Gray [not Eryma Meyer 1840 (Crustacea); not Eryma Albers 1854 (Gastropoda); not Eryma Förster 1868 (Hymenoptera)] (type species: Emys laticeps Gray 1854; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1870 Ocadia Gray (type species: Emys sinensis Gray 1834; syn. Spinks, Shaffer, Iverson & McCord 2004)
1931 Cathaiemys Lindholm (type species: Emys muticus Cantor 1842; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1931 Chinemys Smith (type species: Emys reevesii Gray 1831; syn. Spinks, Shaffer, Iverson & McCord 2004)
1931 Pseudocadia Lindholm (type species: Testudo anyangensis Ping 1930; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1939 Annamemys Bourret (type species: Annamemys merkleni Bourret 1939; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)

Contents: 9 species, of which 2 (22.2%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Other common names:
Annamemys: Vietnamese Leaf Turtle
Chinemys: Chinese Pond Turtles
Ocadia: Chinese Stripe-necked Turtles, Thread Turtles
Remarks: Two recently described species of Mauremys have turned out to be hybrids. Mauremys iversoni, described from Fujian, China, by Pritchard & McCord (1991) was based on a hybrid between Mauremys mutica and Cuora trifasciata (Fritz & Havas 2006). Mauremys pritchardi, described by McCord (1997) was based on a hybrid between Mauremys mutica and Mauremys reevesii (Fritz & Havas 2006). Likewise, Ocadia glyphistoma (Guangxi Stripe-necked Turtle), described from Guangxi, China, by McCord & Iverson (1994), was based on a hybrid between Mauremys sinensis and M. annamensis (Vetter & Van Dijk 2006), and Ocadia philippeni (Philippen’s Stripe-necked Turtle), described from Hainan, China, by McCord & Iverson (1992), turned out to be a hybrid between Mauremys sinensis and Cuora trifasciata (Vetter & Van Dijk 2006).
Distribution: N. Africa, S. Europe, Middle East, E. Asia.
Reported from: Albania, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hong Kong [incl. Shek Kwu Chau Island], Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Macau, Shandong, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Croatia, Cyprus, France, Georgia, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Dodecanese Islands (incl. Rhodes)], Crete), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan (Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, Tsushima Islands), Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Montenegro, Morocco, North Korea, North Macedonia, Portugal, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Spain, Syria, Taiwan, Tunisia, Turkey (incl. European Turkey), Turkmenistan, Vietnam.

Mauremys annamensis

Annam Leaf Turtle, Vietnamese Leaf Turtle, Vietnamese Pond Turtle


Vietnamesisk Bladskildpadde

1903 Cyclemys annamensis Siebenrock
Cuora annamensis Bourret 1927
Annamemys annamensis Savage 1953
Mauremys annamensis Iverson & McCord 1994
Cathaiemys annamensis Vetter in Vetter & van Dijk 2006
1939 Annamemys merkleni Bourret (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1991 Clemmys guangxiensis Qin (Hu, Huang, Xu, Zhang, Ma & Zhong 2013)
Mauremys guangxiensis Obst 2003

Remarks: Presence of wild populations in Guangxi (China) is doubtful, since only documented specimens were found in a farmers' market (Farkas & Sasvári 1992).
Distribution: Vietnam.

Mauremys annamensis
© Rune Midtgaard

Mauremys caspica

Caspian Turtle, Stripe-necked Terrapin, (Eastern Caspian Turtle)

Westasiatische Bachschildkröte

Kaspisk Sumpskildpadde, Kaspisk Flodskildpadde

1774 Testudo caspica Gmelin
Emys caspica Schweigger 1812
Clemmys caspica Wagler 1833
Terrapene caspica Bonaparte 1832
Mauremys caspica McDowell 1964
1831 Emys caspia Rüppell in Gray & Griffith [substitute name] (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1869 Emys grayi Günther [not Emys grayi Bocourt 1868] (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Emmenia grayi Gray 1870
1996 Mauremys caspica ventrimaculata Wischuf & Fritz
1997 Mauremys caspica siebenrocki Fritz & Wischuf

Other common names:
caspica: Eastern Caspian Turtle
siebenrocki: Siebenrock's Caspian Turtle
ventrimaculata: Spot-bellied Caspian Turtle
Introduced to: Latvia, United Arab Emirates.
Distribution: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Turkmenistan.

Mauremys caspica
© Henrik Bringsøe

Mauremys japonica

Japanese Pond Turtle, Japanese Terrapin

Japanische Streifenschildkröte, Japanische Wasserschildkröte

Japansk Sumpskildpadde

1833 Emys vulgaris japonica Temminck & Schlegel
Emys japonica Gray 1844
Emys caspica var. japonica Duméril & Bibron in Duméril & Duméril 1851
Clemmys japonica Strauch 1862
Mauremys japonica McDowell 1964
Ocadia japonica Vetter in Vetter & van Dijk 2006

Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, Tsushima Islands).

Mauremys leprosa

Western Mediterranean Pond Turtle, Mediterranean Terrapin, Leprous Terrapin, Spanish Terrapin

Maurische Bachschildkröte, Maurische Wasserschildkröte, Nordafrikanische Sumpfschildkröte

Maurisk Sumpskildpadde

1812 Emys leprosa Schweigger
Clemmys leprosa Fitzinger 1835
Emys caspica var. leprosa Boettger 1874
Clemmys caspica leprosa Bedriaga 1890
Mauremys caspica leprosa Wermuth & Mertens 1977
Mauremys leprosa Bour 1978
1812 Emys lutescens Schweigger (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Clemmys lutescens Fitzinger 1835
1824 Emys marmorea Spix (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1829 Clemmys sigriz Michahelles (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Emys sigritzii [sic] Gray 1831
Terrapene sigriz Bonaparte 1832
Clemmys caspica sigriz Bedriaga 1882
1831 Emys vulgaris Gray in Griffith & Pidgeon (Fritz & Havas 2006; Nowak-Kemp & Fritz 2010)
1854 Emys laticeps Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Clemmys laticeps Strauch 1862
Eryma laticeps Gray 1870
1860 Emys fuliginosus Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Clemmys fuliginosa Strauch 1862
Mauremys fuliginosa Gray 1869
1869 Emys flavipes Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1869 Mauremys laniaria Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Emys laniaria Gray 1870
1996 Mauremys leprosa atlantica Schleich (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1996 Mauremys leprosa erhardi Schleich (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1996 Mauremys leprosa marokkensis Schleich (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1996 Mauremys leprosa saharica Schleich
1996 Mauremys leprosa wernerkaestlei Schleich (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1996 Mauremys leprosa zizi Schleich (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1999 Mauremys leprosa vanmeerhaeghei Bour & Maran (Fritz & Havas 2006)

Other common names:
leprosa: Common Western Mediterranean Pond Turtle
saharica: Sahara Pond Turtle
Remarks: There are or were isolated populations in Mauritania, Niger, and Mali, however, they may represent prehistorical introductions (Bertolero & Busack 2017) and are regarded as such herein. There are, however, no recent records from Mali (Joger & Lambert 1996). Records from Gambia, Senegal, and Benin are regarded as erroneous (Bertolero & Busack 2017).
Introduced to: Gibraltar, Italy, Mauritania, Niger, Spain (Balearic Islands [Mallorca, Minorca]).
Distribution: Algeria, France, Libya, Morocco, Portugal, Spain (mainland), Tunisia.

Mauremys leprosa
© Henrik Bringsøe

Mauremys mutica

Yellow Pond Turtle, Asian Yellow Pond Turtle, Asian Brown Pond Turtle, Black Turtle, Chinese Pond Terrapin


Gul Sumpskildpadde

1842 Emys muticus Cantor
Clemmys mutica Boettger 1888
Damonia mutica Boulenger 1889
Geoclemys mutica Siebenrock 1909
Cathaiemys mutica Lindholm 1931
Mauremys mutica McDowell 1964
1894 Clemmys schmackeri Boettger (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1957 Annamemys grochovskiae Van Tien (Iverson & McCord 1994)
1996 Mauremys mutica kami Yasukawa, Ota & Iverson

Other common names:
kami: Riu Kiu Yellow Pond Turtle
mutica: Asian Yellow Pond Turtle
Remarks: For decades known as Clemmys (or Mauremys) nigricans, however, Iverson & McCord (1989) demonstrated that Emys nigricans Gray, 1834 refers properly to the Mauremys (formerly Chinemys) nigricans (Gray, 1834), which was known before under its junior synonym Chinemys kwangtungensis (Pope, 1934). Synonymizing the genus Chinemys Smith, 1931 with Mauremys Gray, 1869 (Spinks, Shaffer, Iverson & McCord 2004) resulted again in combining the generic name Mauremys with the species name nigricans, but refers to another taxon (=Chinemys kwangtungensis auct.) as in its previous usage (=Mauremys mutica). It is expected that this will contribute to further substantial confusion regarding literature data for either species (Fritz & Havas 2006).
Introduced to: China (Hong Kong), Japan (Honshu, Ryukyu Islands [Okinawa Islands, Sakishima Islands (incl. Yaeyama Islands)]).
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Zhejiang), Taiwan, Vietnam.

Mauremys mutica
© Rune Midtgaard

Mauremys nigricans

Guangdong River Turtle, Chinese Red-necked Turtle, Chinese Dumb-headed Turtle, Red-necked Pond Turtle

Chinesische Rothalsschildkröte

Rødhalset Sumpskildpadde

1834 Emys nigricans Gray
Clemmys nigricans Strauch 1862
Damonia nigricans Gray 1869
Chinemys nigricans Fang 1934
Mauremys nigricans Spinks, Shaffer, Iverson & McCord 2004
1934 Geoclemys kwangtungensis Pope (Iverson 1992; Zhao & Adler 1993)
Clemmys kuangtungensis [sic] Mell 1938
Chinemys kwangtungensis Bourret 1941

Other common names:
kwangtungensis: Chinese Red-necked Pond Turtle
Remarks: See remarks under mutica. Records from Vietnam refer to mutica (Fritz & Havas 2006), however, Nguyen, Ho & Nguyen (2009) still included nigricans for the country.
Distribution: China (Guangdong, Guangxi), Vietnam.

Mauremys reevesii

Chinese Three-keeled Pond Turtle, Chinese Pond Turtle, Golden Turtle, Japanese Coin Turtle, (Reeve's Pond Turtle, Reeve's Turtle)

Chinesische Dreikielschildkröte

Kinesisk Trekølskildpadde

1831 Emys reevesii Gray
Clemmys reevesii Fitzinger 1835
Geoclemys reevesii Gray 1856
Damonia reevesii Gray 1869
Chinemys reevesii Smith 1931
Mauremys reevesii Spinks, Shaffer, Iverson & McCord 2004
1844 Emys vulagris picta Schlegel (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1851 Emys japonica Duméril & Bibron in Duméril & Duméril (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1873 Damonia unicolor Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Clemmys unicolor Sclater 1873
Damonia reevesii var. unicolor Boulenger 1889
Geoclemys reevesii unicolor Siebenrock 1907
1925 Geoclemys grangeri Schmidt (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Geoclemys reevesi grangeri [sic] Mell 1929
Chinemys grangeri Pritchard 1979
1929 Geoclemys paracaretta Chang (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1934 Chinemys megalocephala Fang (syn. Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017)
Chinemys macrocephala [sic] Bourret 1941
Mauremys megalocephala Spinks, Shaffer, Iverson & McCord 2004

Other common names:
megalocephala: Chinese Broad-headed Pond Turtle
Remarks: Status of megalocephala is uncertain. Iverson, Ernst, Gotte & Lovich (1989) regarded megalocephala as a molluscivorous morph of reevesii, but Zhao & Adler (1993) and Fritz & Havas (2006) retained it as a full species. See also Barth, D.A.; Bernhard, Guicking, Stoeck & Fritz (2003). It is treated as a synonym of reevesii herein, following Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk (2017). Populations in Japan (incl. Riukiu Islands) and Taiwan are known or expected to be introduced, some in recent times, others possibly in prehistoric times (Lovich, Yasukawa & Ota 2011). Reported from Palau on the basis of a photographed turtle of unknown origin, tentatively assigned to reevesii, and a captive specimen reported to have been collected locally, but presence of reevesii in Palau is regarded as doubtful (Crombie & Pregill 1999; Zug 2013).
Extinct in: China (Beijing).
Introduced to: Canada (British Columbia), China (Hebei, Macau, Yunnan), East Timor, Guam, Indonesia (West Timor), Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, Tsushima Islands, Ryukyu Islands), Palau, Taiwan, USA.
Distribution: China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hebei, Guizhou, Guangxi, Henan, Hong Kong [incl. Shek Kwu Chau Island], Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Macau, Shandong, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang), North Korea, South Korea.

Mauremys reevesii
© Rune Midtgaard

Mauremys rivulata

Balkan Pond Turtle, Balkan Terrapin, Eastern Mediterranean Pond Turtle, (Western Caspian Turtle)

Ostmediterrane Bachschildkröte


1833 Emys rivulata Valenciennes
Mauremys caspica rivulata Wermuth & Mertens 1977
Mauremys rivulata Bour in David 1994
Emmenia rivulata Vetter in Vetter & van Dijk 2006
1869 Emys tristrami Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1870 Emys caspica var. arabica Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Emys arabica Gray 1873
1870 Emys pannonica Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1881 Clemmys caspica orientalis Bedriaga (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1912 Clemmys caspica var. obsoleta Schreiber (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1946 Clemmys caspica cretica Mertens (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Mauremys rivulata cretica Bonin, Devaux & Dupré 2006

Remarks: Reported to occur in Serbia by Dijk, Iverson, Shaffer, Bour & Rhodin (2012) and Mantziou & Rifai (2014), although the latter authors excluded the country in their distribution map. Tomovic, Ajtic, Ljubisavljevic, Urosevic, Jovic, Krizmanic, Labus, Dordevic, Kalezic, Vukov & Dzukic (2014) did not include the species in their checklist of Serbian reptiles, nor was Serbia mentioned in the distribution of the species by Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk (2017). The latter authors are followed herein.
Introduced to: Italymainland), Latvia.
Distribution: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Dodecanese Islands (incl. Rhodes)], Crete), Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Syria, Turkey (incl. European Turkey).

Mauremys rivulata
© Henrik Bringsøe

Mauremys sinensis

Chinese Stripe-necked Turtle, Chinese Turtle, Green-headed Turtle, Common Thread Turtle

Chinesische Streifenschildkröte

Stribehalset Sumpskildpadde

1834 Emys sinensis Gray
Clemmys sinensis Strauch 1862
Ocadia sinensis Gray 1870
Mauremys sinensis Spinks, Shaffer, Iverson & McCord 2004
1844 Emys bennettii Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Clemmys bennettii Strauch 1862
1930 Testudo anyangensis Ping (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Pseudocadia anyangensis Lindholm 1931

Remarks: Presence of an introduced population in Guam remains unconfirmed, although some turtles kept by a local resident were said to have been collected in the island (Zug 2013).
Introduced to: China (Hong Kong), Guam, Micronesia (Pohnpei).
Distribution: China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang), Taiwan, Vietnam.

Mauremys sinensis
© Rune Midtgaard