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© Rune Midtgaard


Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Natrix
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae








Genus
Natrix

Eurasian Keelbacks, Eurasian Water Snakes, Common Water Snakes, True Keelbacks, Eurasian Grass Snakes

Eurasische oder Europäische Kielrücken-, Wasser- oder Schwimmnattern

Eurasiske Vandsnoge

1764 Serpens Garsault (type species: Coluber helveticus Bonnaterre 1790; Dubois & Bour 2010, by subsequent designation)
1768 Natrix Laurenti (type species: Natrix vulgaris Laurenti 1768)
1799 Hydrus Schneider (type species: Coluber hydrus Pallas 1776 = Coronella tessellata Laurenti 1768; by subsequent designation (ICZN Opinion 18#)])
1827 Tropidonotus Kuhl in Boie (type species: Coluber natrix Linnaeus 1758)
1848 Elaphrodytes Gistel [substitute name for Hydrus Schneider 1799; erroneously believed preoccupied by Hydra Linnaeus 1758 (Hydrozoa)]
1863 Tropidophorus Jan [not Tropidophorus Dumeril & Bibron 1839 (Scincidae)] (type species: Coronella tessellata Laurenti 1768)

Contents: 5 species, none of which are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: For decades this genus was a catch-all genus containing a large number of species of which the majority is now placed in other genera (i.e., Afronatrix, Amphiesma, Amphiesmoides, Balanophis, Ceratophallus, Clonophis, Hebius, Herpetoreas, Nerodia, Regina, Rhabdophis, Sinonatrix, Thermophis, Tropidonophis, and Xenochrophis).
Distribution: N. Africa, Europe, N. Middle East, SW. and N. Asia.
Reported from: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China (Xinjiang), Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Estonia, Finland, France (incl. Corsica), Georgia, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Cyclades Islands, Dodecanese Islands (incl. Rhodes)], Crete), Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy (incl. Elba, Sardinia, Sicily), Jordan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, North Macedonia, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey (incl. European Turkey), Turkmenistan, Ukraine (incl. Crimea), United Kingdom (Channel Islands, England, Scotland, Wales), Uzbekistan.

Natrix astreptophora

Iberian Grass Snake

Iberische Ringelnatter

Iberisk Vandsnog

1884 Tropidonotus natrix var. astreptophorus Seoane
Natrix natrix astreptophora Lankes 1911
Natrix astreptophora Pokrant, Kindler, Ivanov, Cheylan, Geniez, Böhme & Fritz 2016
1930 Tropidonotus natrix algericus Hecht (syn. Fritz & Schmidtler 2020)
Natrix astreptophora algerica Fritz & Schmidtler 2020

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of natrix (e.g., Mertens & Wermuth 1960).
Distribution: Algeria, France, Gibraltar, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia.


Natrix astreptophora
© Henrik Bringsøe

Natrix helvetica

Barred Grass Snake

Barren-Ringelnatter

Vesteuropæisk Vandsnog

1789 Coluber helveticus Lacepede (ICZN 1992: Opinion 1686)
Natrix natrix helvetica Mertens 1934
Natrix helvetica Kindler, Chevré, Ursenbacher, Böhme, Hille, Jablonski, Vamberger & Fritz 2017
1820 Natrix hybridus Merrem (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1829 Coluber siculus Cuvier
Natrix natrix sicula Mertens & Müller 1928
Natrix helvetica sicula Kindler, Chevré, Ursenbacher, Böhme, Hille, Jablonski, Vamberger & Fritz 2017
1834 Natrix torquata minax Bonaparte (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1834 Natrix torquata murorum Bonaparte (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1838 Natrix cetti Gené
Natrix natrix cetti Mertens & Müller 1928
Natrix helvetica cetti Kindler, Chevré, Ursenbacher, Böhme, Hille, Jablonski, Vamberger & Fritz 2017
1850 Coluber jenisonii Gistel (status uncertain; Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1853 Natrix torquata nigrescens De Betta (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1872 Tropidonotus fallax Fatio (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1880 Tropidonotus natrix concolor Ninni [not Tropidonotus tessellatus concolor Jan 1864] (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1880 Tropidonotus natrix lineata Ninni (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1880 Tropidonotus natrix nigro-torquatus Ninni [substitute name for Coluber siculus Cuvier 1829] (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1930 Tropidonotus natrix britannicus Hecht (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1930 Tropidonotus natrix corsus Hecht
Natrix natrix corsa Mertens 1957
Natrix helvetica corsa Kindler, Chevré, Ursenbacher, Böhme, Hille, Jablonski, Vamberger & Fritz 2017
1970 Natrix natrix lanzai Kramer (syn. Schultze & al. 2020)
Natrix helvetica lanzai Kindler, Chevré, Ursenbacher, Böhme, Hille, Jablonski, Vamberger & Fritz 2017
1983 Natrix natrix calabra Vanni & Lanza (syn. Fritz & Schmidtler 2020)

Other common names:
cetti: Sardinian Grass Snake
corsa: Corsican Grass Snake
lanzai: Tuscan Grass Snake
sicula: South Italian Grass Snake
Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of natrix (e.g., Mertens & Wermuth 1960). Revalidated as a separate species by Kindler, Chevré, Ursenbacher, Böhme, Hille, Jablonski, Vamberger & Fritz (2017).
Distribution: Belgium, Croatia, France (incl. Corsica), Germany, Italy (incl. Elba, Sardinia, Sicily), Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, San Marino, Slovenia, Switzerland, United Kingdom (Channel Islands, England, Scotland, Wales).


Natrix helvetica
© Rune Midtgaard

Natrix maura

Viperine Grass Snake, Viperine Snake, Viperine Water Snake, Lizard Grass Snake

Vipern-Natter

Europæisk Hugormesnog

1758 Coluber maurus Linnaeus
Natrix maura Lindholm 1929
1802 Coluber viperinus Latreille [not Coluber viperinus Donndorff 1798] (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1824 Natrix cherseoides Wagler (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1824 Natrix ocellata Wagler (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1836 Coluber viperinus auro-lineatus Gervais (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1840 Coluber terstriatus Duméril (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1840 Natrix viperina bilineata Bonaparte [not Coluber bilineatus Bibron & Bory 1833] (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1853 Tropidonotus bonellii Fitzinger (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1854 Tropidonotus chersoides Duméril, Bibron & Duméril [substitute name for Natrix cherseoides Wagler 1824] (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1863 Tropidonotus viperinus bilineata Jan [substitute name for Natrix cherseoides Wagler 1824; not Coluber bilineatus Bibron & Bory 1833] (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1868 Coluber viperinus ichthyocharis Gistel (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1872 Tropidonotus viperinus incerta Fation (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1927 Tropidonotus viperinus nigra Mosauer & Wallis [not Coluber niger Dwigubskij 1832; not Tropidonotus natrix nigra Nordmann 1840; not Tropidonotus niger Holbrook 1842; not Tropidonotus natrix nigra Jan 1863]

Remarks: In spite of older reports of the species from Corsica, it has not been confirmed for the island (Lescure & Massary 2012).
Extinct in: Gibraltar.
Introduced to: Italy (Sardinia), Spain (Balearic Islands [Mallorca, Minorca]).
Distribution: Algeria, France, Italy, Libya, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Tunisia.


Natrix maura
© Henrik Bringsøe

Natrix natrix

Common European Grass Snake

Gewöhnliche Ringelnatter

Almindelig Europæisk Vandsnog, Almindelig Snog, Europæisk Snog

1758 Coluber natrix Linnaeus
Natrix natrix Stejneger 1907
1768 Natrix gronoviana Laurenti (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1768 Natrix vulgaris Laurenti (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
Natrix natrix vulgaris Fritz & Schmidtler 2020
1771 Coluber scutatus Pallas (syn. Kindler, Chevré, Ursenbacher, Böhme, Hille, Jablonski, Vamberger & Fritz 2017)
Natrix natrix scutata Mertens 1947
1789 Coluber bipes Gmelin (status uncertain; Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1789 Coluber torquatus Lacepede (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1789 Coluber tyrolensis Gmelin (status uncertain; Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1802 Coluber gronovius Bechstein [substitute name for Natrix gronoviana Laurenti 1768] (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1802 Coluber pipedalis Bechstein [typographical error] (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1803 Coluber scopolianus Daudin (status uncertain; Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1814 Coluber minutus Pallas (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1814 Coluber persa Pallas (syn. Kindler, Chevré, Ursenbacher, Böhme, Hille, Jablonski, Vamberger & Fritz 2017)
Natrix natrix persa Lankes 1912
1827 Tropidonotus oppelii Boie (Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1831 Tropidonotus ater Eichwald (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1831 Tropidonotus persicus Eichwald [substitute name for Coluber persa Pallas 1814] (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1832 Coluber niger Dwigubskij (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1833 Coluber bilineatus Bibron & Bory (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1833 Coluber natrix dalmatina Schinz (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1840 Tropidonotus natrix colchica Nordmann (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1840 Tropidonotus natrix nigra Nordmann (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1864 Tropidonotus natrix bilineata Jan [not Coluber bilineatus Bibron & Bory 1833] (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
Natrix natrix bilineata Werner 1939
1864 Tropidonotus natrix nigra Jan [not Coluber niger Dwigubskij 1832; not Tropidonotus natrix nigra Nordmann 1840] (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1864 Tropidonotus natrix picturata Jan [not Tropidonotus picturatus Schlegel 1837] (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1864 Tropidonotus natrix subbilineata Jan (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1881 Tropidonotus natrix moreoticus Bedriaga (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1897 Tropidonotus natrix albiventris Dürigen (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1897 Tropidonotus natrix fasciatus Dürigen (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1925 Natrix vibakari continentalis Nikolsky (syn. Terentjev & Chernov 1949)
1930 Tropidonotus natrix bithynicus H echt (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1930 Tropidonotus natrix bucharensis Hecht (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1930 Tropidonotus natrix cephallonicus Hecht (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1930 Tropidonotus natrix cypriacus Hecht (syn. Kindler, Chevré, Ursenbacher, Böhme, Hille, Jablonski, Vamberger & Fritz 2017)
Natrix natrix cypriaca Kindler, Chevré, Ursenbacher, Böhme, Hille, Jablonski, Vamberger & Fritz 2017
1930 Tropidonotus natrix dystiensis Hecht (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1930 Tropidonotus natrix schirvanae Hecht (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1930 Tropidonotus natrix syrae Hecht (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1930 Tropidonotus natrix syriacus Hecht (syn. Kindler, Chevré, Ursenbacher, Böhme, Hille, Jablonski, Vamberger & Fritz 2017)
Natrix natrix syriaca Kindler, Chevré, Ursenbacher, Böhme, Hille, Jablonski, Vamberger & Fritz 2017
1932 Natrix natrix schweizeri Müller (syn. Kindler, Chevré, Ursenbacher, Böhme, Hille, Jablonski, Vamberger & Fritz 2017)
1981 Natrix natrix gotlandica Nilson & Andrén (syn. Kindler, Chevré, Ursenbacher, Böhme, Hille, Jablonski, Vamberger & Fritz 2017)
1987 Natrix megalocephala Orlov & Tuniyev (syn. Kindler, Böhme, Corti, Gvozdik, Jablonski, Jandzik, Metallinou, Siroky & Fritz 2013)
1990 Natrix natrix fusca Cattaneo (syn. Kindler, Chevré, Ursenbacher, Böhme, Hille, Jablonski, Vamberger & Fritz 2017)

Other common names:
calabra: Calabrian Grass Snake
cypriaca: Cyprus Grass Snake
fusca: Kea Grass Snake
gotlandica: Gotland Grass Snake
megalocephala: Bigheaded Grass Snake, Large-headed Water Snake, Colchis Water Snake
natrix: Northern Grass Snake
persa: Balkan Grass Snake, Striped Grass Snake
schweizeri: Milos Grass Snake
scutata: Crimean Grass Snake
syriaca: Syrian Grass Snake
Remarks: Previously included astreptophora and helvetica. Status of megalocephala has been disputed. Regarded as a synonym of natrix by most authors (e.g., Hille 1997; Jandzík 2005; Kasparek 2005; Venchi & Sindaco 2006; Böhme 2010; Dubois & Bour 2010; Kindler, Böhme, Corti, Gvozdik, Jablonski, Jandzik, Metallinou, Siroky & Fritz 2013), although treated as a valid species by some (e.g., Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014). As far as known, the species does not occur in Israel now, although a past occurrence is possible (Grillitsch & Werner 2009). Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco (2013) included Inner Mongolia in the distribution of the species, but no other works supporting this claim have been found.
Introduced to: Martinique.
Distribution: Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China (Xinjiang), Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Germany, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Cyclades Islands, Dodecanese Islands (incl. Rhodes)]), Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Turkey (incl. European Turkey), Turkmenistan, Ukraine (incl. Crimea).


Natrix natrix
© Henrik Bringsøe


Natrix natrix
© Henrik Bringsøe


Natrix natrix
© Rune Midtgaard


Natrix natrix
© Rune Midtgaard

Natrix tessellata

Dice Snake, Diced Water Snake, Tessellated Water Snake, Blotched Water Snake

Würfelnatter

Europæisk Rudesnog

1768 Coronella tessellata Laurenti
Natrix tessellata Merrem 1820
Xenochrophis tessellata Khan 2006
1771 Coluber hydrus Pallas (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1791 Coluber hydrophylus Lindaker (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1814 Coluber ponticus Pallas (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1823 Coluber gabinus Metaxa (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1831 Tropidonotus gracilis Eichwald (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1831 Tropidonotus tantalus Eichwald (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1832 Coluber griseus Dwigubskij (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1832 Coluber muravievii Dwigubskij (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1832 Coluber reticulatus Menetries (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1834 Natrix tessellata albo-lineata Bonaparte (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1838 Coluber elaphoides Brandt (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1840 Natrix hydrus immaculata Fitzinger (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1853 Natrix tessellatus flavescens Massolongo (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1864 Tropidonotus tessellatus concolor Jan (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1865 Tropidonotus tessellatus decipiens De Betta (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1868 Coluber tessellatus nigerrima Gistel (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1881 Tropidonotus tessellatus laurenti Bedriaga (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1891 Tropidonotus tessellata flavescens Werner (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1897 Tropidonotus tessellatus hagenbecki Werner (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1897 Tropidonotus tessellatus lineaticollis Werner (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1897 Tropidonotus tessellatus nigerrima Werner (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1897 Tropidonotus tessellatus rubromaculosus Dürigen (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1897 Tropidonotus tessellatus sparsus Dürigen [not Tropidonotus sparsus Schreiber 1875] (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1897 Tropidonotus tessellatus viperinoides Dürigen [substitute name for Tropidonotus tessellatus flavescens Werner 1891] (syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1903 Tropidonotus tessellatus vosseleri Werner (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1916 Enhydris caspia Oken (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1930 Tropidonotus tessellatus heinrothi Hecht
Natrix tessellata heinrothi Mertens 1957
1932 Natrix dubbiosii Scortecci (syn. Leviton 1977)
1956 Natrix tessellata cyreni Sochurek (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1956 Natrix tessellata gaydai Sochurek (syn. Böhme (ed.) 1999)
1968 Natrix dunni Malnate (syn. Mertens 1969; Böhme (ed.) 1999)
Sinonatrix dunni Welch 1988

Other common names:
heinrothi: Island Dice Snake
Remarks: Only a single record from Pakistan (Wall 1911) and Yemen (Scortecci 1932), respectively. The latter is disregarded herein.
Introduced to: United Kingdom (England).
Distribution: Afghanistan, Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China (Xinjiang), Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Georgia, Germany, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands, Crete), Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey (incl. European Turkey), Turkmenistan, Ukraine (incl. Crimea), Uzbekistan.


Natrix tessellata
© Henrik Bringsøe