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Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: December 31st, 2022.

Taxonomy of the family Emydidae
Bibliography of the genus Pseudemys
Biodiversity of the family Emydidae


Cooter Turtles, Red-bellied Turtles

Eigentliche Schmuckschildkröten


1856 Pseudemys Gray (type species: Testudo concinna Le Conte 1830)
1857 Nectemys Agassiz [substitute name for Ptychemys Agassiz 1857] (syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1857 Ptychemys Agassiz (type species: Testudo concinna Le Conte 1830; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)

Contents: 8 species, of which 7 (87.5%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Previously included in Chrysemys (e.g., McDowell 1964; Zug 1966; Weaver & Rose 1967). Revalidated by Seidel & Smith (1986). The genus is a taxonomically difficult group in need of a multi-disciplinary revision. The results of Spinks, Thomson, Pauly, Newman, Mount & Shaffer (2013) suggested that the group has been oversplit and contains fewer species than currently recognized, although these authors did not recommend any taxonomic changes, pending further studies.
Distribution: C. and E. North America.
Reported from: Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas), USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, D.C., West Virginia).

Pseudemys alabamensis

Alabama Red-bellied Turtle, Alabama Red-bellied Cooter


Rødbuget Alabama-terrapin

1893 Pseudemys alabamensis Baur
Chrysemys alabamensis Ditmars 1907
Pseudemys rubriventris alabamensis Stejneger 1938
Chrysemys rubriventris alabamensis Obst 1983

Distribution: USA (Alabama, Mississippi).

Pseudemys concinna

River Cooter

Gewöhniche Schmuckschildkröte, Hieroglyphen-Schmuckschildkröte (subsp. concinna)

Almindelig Pragtterrapin

1830 Testudo concinna Le Conte
Emys concinna Bonaparte 1831
Terrapene concinna Bonaparte 1831
Clemmys concinna Fitzinger 1835
Pseudemys concinna Gray 1856
Ptychemys concinna Agassiz 1857
Chrysemys concinna Boulenger 1889
Pseudemys floridana concinna Carr 1935
1831 Emys annulifera Gray in Griffith (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Trachemys annulifera Gray 1873
1836 Emys hieroglyphica Holbrook (Seidel 1994)
Pseudemys hieroglyphica Gray 1856
Ptychemys hieroglyphica Agassiz 1857
Clemmys hieroglyphica Strauch 1862
Chrysemys hieroglyphica Boulenger 1889
Pseudemys floridana hieroglyphica Carr 1938
Pseudemys concinna hieroglyphica Stejneger & Barbour 1939
Chrysemys concinna hieroglyphica Weaver & Rose 1967
1838 Emys mobilensis Holbrook (Seidel 1994)
Ptychemys mobilensis Agassiz 1857
Clemmys mobilensis Strauch 1862
Pseudemys mobiliensis [lapsus] Gray 1863
Chrysemys mobiliensis Boulenger 1889
Pseudemys floridana mobiliensis Carr 1937
Pseudemys concinna mobilensis Stejneger & Barbour 1939
Chrysemys concinna mobilensis Cochran & Goin 1970
1851 Emys labyrinthica Duméril & Bibron in Duméril & Duméril (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Chrysemys labyrinthica Hay 1892
Pseudemys labyrinthica Baur 1893
Clemmys labyrinthica Strauch 1862
1857 Ptychemys hoyi Agassiz (Iverson 1992)
Pseudemys concinna hoyi Stejneger 1938
Pseudemys floridana hoyi Brown 1950
Chrysemys floridana hoyi Cochran & Goin 1970
1865 Emys orthonyx Wied (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1928 Pseudemys elonae Brimley (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1928 Pseudemys vioscana Brimley (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1937 Pseudemys floridana suwanniensis Carr (Seidel & Dreslik 1996; Fritz & Havas 2006)
Pseudemys concinna suwanniensis Stejneger & Barbour 1939
Chrysemys concinna suwanniensis Weaver & Rose 1967
Pseudemys sueanniensis [lapsus] Nothstine, Davis & DeRoos 1971
Pseudemys suwanniensis Seidel 1994
1957 Pseudemys virginica Pasteels [lapsus] (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1994 Pseudemys concinna metteri Ward

Other common names:
concinna: Eastern River Cooter
hieroglyphica: Hieroglyphic Cooter
metteri: Metter's Cooter
suwanniensis: Suwannee Cooter
Remarks: Taxonomy of concinna and related taxa has a confused history. Previously included floridana, gorzugi, and texana. Some authors regard suwanniensis as a separate species (Nothstine, Davis & DeRoos 1971; Collins 1991; Seidel 1994; Crother (ed.) 2008, 2012), as opposed to others (e.g., Jackson 1995, Seidel & Dreslik 1996; Conant & Collins 1998; Fritz & Havas 2006).
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia).

Pseudemys floridana

Florida Cooter


Nordlig Florida-pragtterrapin

1830 Testudo floridana Le Conte
Terrapene floridana Bonaparte 1830
Emys floridana Duméril & Bibron 1835
Clemmys floridana Fitzinger 1835
Pseudemys floridana Baur 1893
Chrysemys floridana Ditmars 1907
Pseudemys concinna floridana Ashe 1970

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of concinna (e.g., Fritz & Havas 2006). Formerly included peninsularis. Many authors have regarded floridana as a separate species, others as a subspecies of concinna. Treated as a separate species herein, following Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk (2021).
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia).

Pseudemys gorzugi

Rio Grande Cooter


Rio Grande-pragtterrapin

1984 Pseudemys concinna gorzugi Ward
Pseudemys gorzugi Ernst 1990

Remarks: Raised to full species status by Ernst (1990) and Collins (1991). Reported for Chihuahua by Dijk, Iverson, Shaffer, Bour & Rhodin (2012), but no other records seem to support this.
Distribution: Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas), USA (New Mexico, Texas).

Pseudemys nelsoni

Florida Red-bellied Turtle


Sydlig Rødbuget Terrapin

1938 Pseudemys nelsoni Carr
Pseudemys rubriventris nelsoni Mertens 1951
Chrysemys nelsoni McDowell 1964
Chrysemys rubriventris nelsoni Obst 1983

Introduced to: British Virgin Islands, USA (Texas).
Distribution: USA (Florida, Georgia).

Pseudemys peninsularis

Peninsula Cooter


Sydlig Florida-pragtterrapin

1938 Pseudemys floridana peninsularis Carr
Chrysemys floridana peninsularis Weaver & Rose 1967
Pseudemys peninsularis Seidel 1994

Remarks: Some authors regard peninsularis as a subspecies of floridana. Fritz & Havas (2006) treated peninsularis as a separate species, but floridana as a subspecies of concinna (see remarks under concinna).
Distribution: USA (Florida).

Pseudemys rubriventris

Northern Red-bellied Cooter, American Red-bellied Turtle, Eastern Red-bellied Turtle


Nordlig Rødbuget Terrapin

1830 Testudo rubriventris Le Conte
Terrapene rubriventris Bonaparte 1830
Emys rubriventris Duméril & Bibron 1835
Clemmys rubriventris Fitzinger 1835
Chrysemys rubriventris Boulenger 1889
Pseudemys rubriventris Baur 1893
1835 Emys irrigata Bell in Duméril & Bibron (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1844 Emys rivulata Gray [not Emys rivulata Valenciennes 1833] (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1937 Pseudemys rubriventris bangsi Babcock (Iverson 1992)
Chrysemys rubriventris bangsi Ernst & Barbour 1972
Pseudemys bangsi Collins 1991

Introduced to: USA (New York, Long Island).
Distribution: USA (Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Washington, D.C., West Virginia).

Pseudemys rubriventris
© Henrik Bringsøe

Pseudemys texana

Texas Cooter



1893 Pseudemys texana Baur
Chrysemys texana Ditmars 1907
Pseudemys floridana texana Carr 1938
Pseudemys concinna texana Conant 1958
Chrysemys concinna texana Conant 1975

Distribution: USA (Texas).