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Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: December 31st, 2022.

Taxonomy of the family Viperidae
Bibliography of the genus Sistrurus
Biodiversity of the family Viperidae


Pygmy Rattlesnakes



1825 Crotalophorus Gray [not Crotalophorus Houttuyn 1764 (Serpentes)] (type species: Crotalus miliarius Linnaeus 1766)
1826 Caudisona Fitzinger [not Caudisona Laurenti 1768 (Serpentes)] (type species: Crotalus miliarius Linnaeus 1766)
1884 Sistrurus Garman "1883" [substitute name for Crotalophorus Gray 1825 and Caudisona Fitzinger 1843] (type species: Crotalus miliarius Linnaeus 1766)
Contents: 3 species, of which 1 (33.3%) is endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Previously included Crotalus ravus.
Distribution: C. and E. North America.
Reported from: Canada (Ontario), Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas), USA (Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Wisconsin).

Sistrurus catenatus

Eastern Massasauga

Östliche Massassauga

Østlig Massasauga, Sumpklapperslange

1818 Crotalinus catenatus Rafinesque
Crotalurus catenatus Rafinesque 1820
Sistrurus catenatus Garman 1884
Crotalophorus catenatus Cope 1892
1838 Crotalus messasaugus Kirtland in Mather (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1842 Crotalophorus kirtlandi Holbrook (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1853 Crotalophorus consors Baird & Girard (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Crotalus consors Coues 1875
Sistrurus catenatus consors Garman 1884

Remarks: Previously included tergeminus. Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014) listed messasaugus as a valid species, but without discussion.
Distribution: Canada (Ontario), USA (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin).

Sistrurus catenatus
© Rune Midtgaard

Sistrurus miliarius

North American Pygmy Rattlesnake


Lille Dværgklapperslange

1766 Crotalus miliarius Linnaeus
Crotalophorus miliaris [sic] Gray 1825
Caudisona miliaria Fitzinger 1826
Sistrurus miliarius Garman 1884
1935 Sistrurus miliarius barbouri Gloyd
1935 Sistrurus miliarius streckeri Gloyd

Other common names:
barbouri: Dusky Pygmy Rattlesnake
miliarius: Carolina Pygmy Rattlesnake
streckeri: Western Pygmy Rattlesnake
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas).

Sistrurus miliarius
© Rune Midtgaard

Sistrurus tergeminus

Western Massasauga

Westliche Massassauga

Vestlig Massasauga

1823 Crotalus tergeminus Say
Crotalophorus tergeminus Gray 1831
Crotalus miliarius tergeminus Jan 1863
Caudisona tergemina Cope 1875
Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus Klauber 1936
Sistrurus tergeminus Kubatko, Gibbs & Bloomquist 2011 [by implication]
1853 Crotalophorus edwardsii Baird & Girard
Crotalus miliarius edwardsii Jan 1863
Caudisoma edwardsii Yarow 1875
Crotalophorus catenatus edwardsii Cope 1892
Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii Stejneger 1895
Sistrurus edwardsii Cockerell 1896
Crotalus catenatus edwardsii Hoge 1966
Sistrurus tergeminus edwardsii Kubatko, Gibbs & Bloomquist 2011 [by implication]

Other common names:
edwardsii: Desert Massasauga
tergeminus: Prairie Massasauga
Remarks: Kubatko, Gibbs & Bloomquist (2011) separated catenatus from its two former subspecies, tergeminus and edwardsii, but without actually using the combination S. tergeminus. However, this name is the one which must be applied for the Western Massasauga, since tergeminus is an older name than edwardsii.
Distribution: Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas), USA (Arizona, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas).

Sistrurus tergeminus
© Rune Midtgaard