Home - Taxonomy - Geography - Biodiversity - Literature - Purchase RepFocus Recent updates
Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: October 31st, 2023.

Taxonomy of the family Chamaeleonidae
Bibliography of the genus Trioceros
Biodiversity of the family Chamaeleonidae


Equatorial Chameleons

Äkvatoriale Chamäleons

Ækvatoriale Kamæleoner

1839 Trioceros Swainson (type species: Trioceros grayii Swainson 1839)
1843 Triceras Fitzinger [not Triceras Lobarzewski 1840 (Spongia)] (type species: Chamaeleo oweni Gray 1831; syn. Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1865 Ensirostris Gray (type species: Ensirostris melleri Gray 1865; syn. Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1865 Pterosaurus Gray [not Pterosaurus Fitzinger 1843 (Reptilia: Agamidae)] (type species: Chamaeleo cristatus Gray [=Stutchbury 1837]; syn. Klaver & Böhme 1997)
Contents: 41 species, of which 22 (53.7%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Previously regarded as a subgenus of Chamaeleo (e.g., Klaver & Böhme 1997). Tilbury & Tolley (2009) confirmed previous suggestions that the two former subgenera should be treated as distinct genera.
Distribution: Equatorial Africa.
Reported from: Angola (incl. Cabinda), Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko, Rio Muni), Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia.

Trioceros affinis

Ethiopian Mountain Chameleon, Ethiopian Highland Chameleon, Beardless Ethiopian Montane Chameleon

Äthiopische Gebirgschamäleon

Etiopisk Bjergkamæleon

1845 Chamaeleo affinis Rüppell
Chamaeleon affinis Werner 1911
Trioceros affinis Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Distribution: Ethiopia.

Trioceros balebicornutus

Bale Mountains Two-horned Chameleon


Tohornet Bale-kamæleon

1998 Chamaeleo balebicornutus Tilbury
Trioceros balebicornutus Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Distribution: Ethiopia.

Trioceros bitaeniatus

Two-striped Chameleon, Two-lined Chameleon, Side-striped Chameleon, Double-banded Chameleon


Tostribet Kamæleon

1884 Chamaeleo bitaeniatus Fischer
Chamaeleon bitaeniatus Werner 1911
Trioceros bitaeniatus Tilbury & Tolley 2009
1916 Chamaeleo bilineatus Séwertzoff [substitute name for Chamaeleo bitaeniatus Fischer 1884] (Klaver & Böhme 1997)

Distribution: Congo-Kinshasa, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.

Trioceros camerunensis

Cameroon Chameleon, Cameroon Dwarf Chameleon


Camerounsk Kamæleon

1909 Chamaeleon camerunensis Müller
Chamaeleo montium camerunensis Mertens 1965
Chamaeleo camerunensis Klaver & Böhme 1986
Trioceros camerunensis Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Distribution: Cameroon.

Trioceros chapini

Grey Chameleon, (Chapin's Chameleon)

Graue Chamäleon

Grå Kamæleon

1964 Chamaeleo chapini De Witte
Trioceros chapini Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Distribution: Congo-Kinshasa, Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni), Gabon.

Trioceros conirostratus

Sudanese Unicorn Chameleon, South Sudanese Unicorn Chameleon

Sudanische Chamäleon

Sudanesisk Hornkamæleon

1998 Chamaeleo conirostratum Tilbury
Trioceros conirostratus Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Distribution: Kenya, South Sudan, Uganda.

Trioceros cristatus

Crested Chameleon, Sail-backed Chameleon, Fringed Chameleon


Kammet Kamæleon

1837 Chamaeleo cristatus Stutchbury
Chamaeleo cristatus Mertens 1966
Trioceros cristatus Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Distribution: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko, Rio Muni), Gabon, Nigeria.

Trioceros deremensis

Usambara Three-horned Chameleon


Trehornet Usambara-kamæleon

1892 Chamaeleon deremensis Matschie
Chamaeleo deremensis Mertens 1966
Trioceros deremensis Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Distribution: Tanzania.

Trioceros ellioti

Montane Side-striped Chameleon, (Elliot's Groove-throated Chameleon)



1895 Chamaeleon ellioti Günther
Chamaeleon bitaeniatus var. ellioti Tornier 1897
Chamaeleo ellioti Böhme & Klaver 1980
Trioceros ellioti Tilbury & Tolley 2009
1922 Chamaeleon bequaerti De Witte (De Witte 1933; Klaver & Böhme 1997)

Distribution: Burundi, Congo-Kinshasa, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.

Trioceros feae

Bioko Montane Chameleon



1906 Chamaeleon feae Boulenger
Chamaeleo montium feae Mertens 1965
Chamaeleo feae Klaver & Böhme 1986
Trioceros feae Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Distribution: Equatorial Guinea (Bioko).

Trioceros fuelleborni

Poroto Three-horned Chameleon


Trehornet Poroto-kamæleon

1900 Chamaeleon fülleborni Tornier
Chamaeleon fuelleborni Werner 1911
Chamaeleo fuelleborni Mertens 1966
Trioceros fuelleborni Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Distribution: Tanzania.

Trioceros goetzei

Ilolo Chameleon, (Goetze's Chameleon, Goetze's Whistling Chameleon)



1899 Chamaeleon goetzei Tornier
Chamaeleo goetzei Loveridge 1953
Trioceros goetzei Tilbury & Tolley 2009
1953 Chamaeleo goetzei nyikae Loveridge (Klaver & Böhme 1997)
Trioceros goetzei nyikae Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Other common names:
goetzei: Tanzania Goetze's Chameleon
nyikae: Nyika Whistling Chameleon, Nyika Goetze's Chameleon
Distribution: Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia.

Trioceros hanangensis

Hanang Yellow-striped Chameleon


Gulstribet Hanang-kamæleon

2010 Trioceros hanangensis Krause & Böhme

Distribution: Tanzania.

Trioceros harennae

Harenna Hornless Chameleon, Harenna Forest Chameleon



1995 Chamaeleo harennae Largen
Trioceros harennae Tilbury & Tolley 2009
2004 Chamaeleo harennae fitchi Necas
Trioceros harennae fitchi Tilbury & Tolley 2009 [by implication]

Distribution: Ethiopia.

Trioceros hoehnelii

High-casqued Chameleon, Kenyan High-casqued Chameleon, Helmeted Chameleon, (Von Höhnel's Chameleon)



1891 Chamaelon höhnelii Steindachner
Chamaeleon bitaeniatus höhneli Werner 1911
Chamaeleo hoehnelii Mertens 1966
Trioceros hoehnelii Tilbury & Tolley 2009
1891 Chamaeleon leikipiensis Steindachner (Boulenger 1892; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
Chamaeleon bitaeniatus leikipiensis Werner 1911
1912 Chamaeleon bitaeniatus bergeri Sternfeld (Loveridge 1929; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1935 Chamaeleon bitaeniatus altaelgonis Loveridge (Rand 1963)
Chamaeleo hoehnelii altaelgonis Mertens 1966

Other common names:
altaelgonis: Alpine High-casqued Chameleon
Distribution: Kenya, Uganda.

Trioceros hoehnelii
© Rune Midtgaard

Trioceros incornutus

Ukinga Hornless Chameleon



1932 Chamaeleon incornutus Loveridge
Chamaeleo incornutus Mertens 1966
Trioceros incornutus Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Distribution: Malawi, Tanzania.

Trioceros ituriensis

Ituri Forest Chameleon



1919 Chamaeleon ituriensis Schmidt
Chamaeleo johnstoni ituriensis Loveridge 1942
Chamaeleo ituriensis Klaver & Böhme 1997
Trioceros ituriensis Tilbury & Tolley 2009
1912 Chamaeleon johnstoni affinis Sternfeld [not Chamaeleo affinis Rüppell 1843] (Schmidt 1919; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1994 Chamaeleo tremperi Necas (Tilbury 2010)

Other common names:
tremperi: Eldama Ravine Chameleon
Remarks: Some authors have treated ituriensis as a subspecies of johnstoni (e.g., Loveridge 1942; Mertens 1966), but without discussion. Presence in Kenya (type locality of tremperi) is regarded as erroneous (Tilbury 2010). Although Tilbury (2010) considered ituriensis an endemic to Congo-Kinshasa, the species has been listed for Uganda in several works (e.g., Vonesh 1998; Spawls, Howell, Drewes & Ashe 2002; Glaw 2015; Spawls, Howell, Hinkel & Menegon 2018),
Distribution: Congo-Kinshasa, Uganda.

Trioceros jacksonii

Kikuyu Three-horned Chameleon, (Jackson's Three-horned Chameleon)


Trehornet Kikuyu-kamæleon, (Jacksons Kamæleon)

1896 Chamaeleon jacksonii Boulenger
Chamaeleo jacksoni Mertens 1966
Trioceros jacksoni Tilbury & Tolley 2009
1904 Chamaeleon jacksoni var. vauerescecae Tornier (Mertens 1949; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1958 Chamaeleo jacksoni merumontana Rand (Klaver & Böhme 1997)
Trioceros jacksoni merumontanus Tilbury & Tolley 2009 [by implication]
1988 Chamaeleo jacksoni xantholophus Eason, Ferguson & Hebrard (Klaver & Böhme 1997)
Trioceros jacksoni xantholophus Tilbury & Tolley 2009 [by implication]

Other common names:
merumontanus: Meru Three-horned Chameleon
Introduced to: USA (California, Hawaii).
Distribution: Kenya, Tanzania.

Trioceros jacksonii
© Rune Midtgaard

Trioceros johnstoni

Ruwenzori Three-horned Chameleon, (Johnston's Three-horned Chameleon)

Ruwenzori-Dreihornchamäleon, Johnstons Chamäleon

Trehornet Ruwenzori-kamæleon, (Johnstonkamæleon)

1901 Chamaeleon johnstoni Boulenger
Chamaeleo johnstoni Loveridge 1942
Trioceros johnstoni Tilbury & Tolley 2009
1911 Chamaeleon graueri Steindachner (Sternfeld 1912; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
Chamaeleon johnstoni graueri Werner 1911
1926 Chamaeleon laevivulgaris Müller (Hillenius 1963; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1951 Chamaeleo johnstoni crenulatus Laurent (De Witte 1965; Klaver & Böhme 1997)

Distribution: Burundi, Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, Uganda.

Trioceros kinangopensis

Kinangop Peak Chameleon



2012 Trioceros kinangopensis Stipala, Lutzmann, Malonza, Wilkinson, Godley, Nyamache & Evans

Distribution: Kenya.

Trioceros kinetensis

Mount Kineti Chameleon



1943 Chamaeleo bitaeniatus kinetensis Schmidt
Chamaeleo kinetensis Rand 1963
Trioceros kinetensis Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Distribution: South Sudan.

Trioceros laterispinis

Spiny-sided Chameleon, Spiny-flanked Chameleon


Tornsidet Kamæleon

1932 Chamaeleon laterispinis Loveridge
Chamaeleo laterispinis Mertens 1966
Trioceros laterispinis Tilbury & Tolley 2009
1982 Chamaeleo laterispinis brookesiaeformis Böhme (Böhme 1987)

Distribution: Tanzania.

Trioceros marsabitensis

Mount Marsabit Chameleon, Marsabit One-horned Chameleon



1991 Chamaeleo marsabitensis Tilbury
Trioceros marsabitensis Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Distribution: Kenya.

Trioceros melleri

Elephant-eared Chameleon, Giant One-horned Chameleon, (Meller's Chameleon)

Elefantenohrchamäleon, Mellers Chamäleon

Elefantøre-kamæleon, (Mellers Kamæleon)

1865 Ensirostris melleri Gray
Chamaeleon melleri Werner 1911
Chamaeleo melleri Mertens 1966
Trioceros melleri Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Introduced to: USA (Florida).
Distribution: Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania.

Trioceros melleri
© Rune Midtgaard

Trioceros montium

Cameroon Two-horned Mountain Chameleon, Cameroon Sail-finned Chameleon



1874 Chamaeleo montium Buchholz
Chamaeleon montium Werner 1911
Trioceros montium Tilbury & Tolley 2009
1938 Chamaeleo montium grafi Mertens (Klaver & Böhme 1992)

Distribution: Cameroon.

Trioceros narraioca

Mount Kulal Chameleon, Mount Kulal Stump-nosed Chameleon



2003 Chamaeleo narraioca Necas, Modry & Slapeta
Trioceros narraioca Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Distribution: Kenya.

Trioceros ntunte

Mount Nyiru Chameleon



2005 Chamaeleo ntunte Necas, Modry & Slapeta
Trioceros ntunte Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Distribution: Kenya.

Trioceros nyirit

Mtelo Massif Chameleon



2011 Trioceros nyirit Stipala, Lutzmann, Malonza, Borghesio, Wilkinson, Godley & Evans

Distribution: Kenya.

Trioceros oweni

Central African Three-horned Chameleon, (Owen's Three-horned Chameleon)

Zentralafrikanische Dreihornchamäleon

Centralafrikansk Trehornet Kamæleon

1831 Chamaeleo oweni Gray
Chamaeleon owenii Werner 1911
Trioceros oweni Tilbury & Tolley 2009
1836 Chamaeleo tricornis Duméril & Bibron (Gray 1845; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1838 Chamaeleon bibroni Martin (Gray 1845; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1839 Trioceros grayii Swainson [substitute name for Chameleo oweni Gray 1831] (Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1906 Chamaeleon unicornis Mocquard (De Witte 1965; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
Chamaeleo oweni unicornis Hillenius 1959
1912 Chamaeleon oweni cristata Sternfeld [not Chamaeleo cristatus Stutchbury 1837]
1913 Chamaeleo michelli Müller (Schmidt 1919; Klaver & Böhme 1997)

Remarks: Glaw (2015) included Uganda in the distribution of oweni based on an erroneous reference to Tilbury (2010), who did not list list this species for the country.
Distribution: Angola (Cabinda), Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko, Rio Muni), Gabon, Nigeria.

Trioceros perreti

Southern Peacock Chameleon, (Perret's Montane Chameleon)

Southern Pfauenchamäleon

Sydlig Påfuglekamæleon

1992 Chamaeleo wiedersheimi perreti Klaver & Böhme
Trioceros wiedersheimi perreti Tilbury & Tolley 2009 [by implication]
Trioceros perreti Barej, Ineich, Gvozdik, Lhermitte-Vallarino, Gonwouo, LeBreton, Bott & Schmitz 2010

Distribution: Cameroon.

Trioceros pfefferi

Bakossi Two-horned Chameleon, (Pfeffer's Chameleon)


Tohornet Bakossi-kamæleon

1900 Chamaeleon pfefferi Tornier
Chamaeleo pfefferi Mertens 1966
Trioceros pfefferi Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Distribution: Cameroon.

Trioceros quadricornis

Four-horned Chameleon


Firhornet Kamæleon

1899 Chamaeleo quadricornis Tornier
Trioceros quadricornis Tilbury & Tolley 2009
1968 Chamaeleo eisentrauti Mertens
Trioceros eisentrauti Tilbury & Tolley 2009
Trioceros quadricornis eisentrauti Barej, Ineich, Gvozdik, Lhermitte-Vallarino, Gonwouo, LeBreton, Bott & Schmitz 2010
1981 Chamaeleo quadricornis gracilior Böhme & Klaver (Klaver & Böhme 1997)
Trioceros quadricornis gracilior Tilbury & Tolley 2009 [by implication]

Other common names:
eisentrauti: Eisentraut's Chameleon
gracilior: Northern Four-horned Chameleon
quadricornis: Southern Four-horned Chameleon
Distribution: Cameroon, Nigeria.

Trioceros rudis

Ruwenzori Side-striped Chameleon, Ruwenzori Bearded Chameleon



1906 Chamaeleon rudis Boulenger
Chamaeleon bitaeniatus rudis Werner 1911
Chamaeleo rudis Rand 1963
Trioceros rudis Tilbury & Tolley 2009
1912 Chamaeleon bitaeniatus graueri Sternfeld [not Chamaeleon graueri Steindachner 1911] (Rand 1963; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1912 Chamaeleon bitaeniatus tornieri Sternfeld [not Chamaeleon tornieri Werner 1902] (Rand 1963; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1933 Chamaeleon burgeoni De Witte (Rand 1963; Klaver & Böhme 1997)

Remarks: Status of Kenyan specimens is unclear (Spawls, Howell, Hinkel & Menegon 2018).
Distribution: Burundi, Congo-Kinshasa, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.

Trioceros schoutedeni

Congolese Montane Dwarf Chameleon, (Schouteden's Montane Dwarf Chameleon)

Kongolesische Gebirgschamäleon

Congolesisk Bjergkamæleon

1952 Chamaeleo bitaeniatus schoutedeni Laurent
Chamaeleo rudis schoutedeni Rand 1963
Chamaeleo schoutedeni Böhme & Klaver 1980
Trioceros schoutedeni Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Distribution: Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda.

Trioceros schubotzi

Mount Kenya Side-striped Chameleon, Mount Kenya Dwarf Chameleon

Kenianische Seitenstreifen-Chamäleon

Kenyansk Bjergkamæleon

1912 Chamaeleon bitaeniatus schubotzi Sternfeld
Chamaeleo schubotzi Rand 1963
Chamaeleo rudis schubotzi Mertens 1966
Chamaeleo schubotzi Böhme & Klaver 1980
Trioceros schubotzi Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Remarks: Reports from Tanzania are regarded as erroneous and rather refer to rudis (Tilbury 2010).
Distribution: Kenya.

Trioceros serratus

Serrated Chameleon

Gesägte Chamäleon

Savtakket Kamæleon

1922 Chamaeleon serratus Mertens
Trioceros serratus Barej, Ineich, Gvozdik, Lhermitte-Vallarino, Gonwouo, LeBreton, Bott & Schmitz 2010

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of wiedersheimi (e.g., Mertens 1940, 1966; Klaver & Böhme 1997; Tilbury 2010). Revalidated by Barej, Ineich, Gvozdik, Lhermitte-Vallarino, Gonwouo, LeBreton, Bott & Schmitz (2010).
Distribution: Cameroon, Nigeria.

Trioceros sternfeldi

Tanzanian Montane Dwarf Chameleon

Tansanianische Gebirgschamäleon


1963 Chamaeleo rudis sternfeldi Rand
Trioceros sternfeldi Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Distribution: Kenya, Tanzania.

Trioceros tempeli

Tubercle-nosed Chameleon, Udzungwa Double-bearded Chameleon, Double-bearded Chameleon


Tuberkelsnudet Kamæleon

1899 Chamaeleon tempeli Tornier
Chamaeleo tempeli Mertens 1966
Trioceros tempeli Tilbury & Tolley 2009
1900 Chamaeleon tempeli var. wolffi Tornier (Loveridge 1933; Klaver & Böhme 1997)

Distribution: Tanzania.

Trioceros werneri

Udzungwa Three-horned Chameleon, (Werner's Three-horned Chameleon)


Trehornet Udzungwa-kamæleon

1899 Chamaeleon werneri Tornier
Chamaeleo werneri Mertens 1966
Trioceros werneri Tilbury & Tolley 2009
1932 Chamaeleon werneri dabagae Loveridge (Loveridge 1957; Klaver & Böhme 1997)

Distribution: Tanzania.

Trioceros wiedersheimi

Northern Peacock Chameleon, (Wiedersheim's Montane Chameleon)

Nördliche Pfauenchamäleon

Nordlig Påfuglekamæleon

1910 Chamaeleon wiedersheimi Nieden
Chamaeleo wiedersheimi Klaver & Böhme 1986
Trioceros wiedersheimi Tilbury & Tolley 2009

Remarks: Previously included perreti and serratus.
Distribution: Cameroon, Nigeria.

Trioceros wolfgangboehmei

Dinsho Mountain Chameleon, (Wolfgang Böhme's Ethiopian Chameleon)



2021 Trioceros wolfgangboehmei Koppetsch, Necas & Wipfler

Distribution: Ethiopia.