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Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: December 31st, 2022.

Taxonomy of the family Tropiduridae
Bibliography of the genus Tropidurus
Biodiversity of the family Tropiduridae


Eastern Keel-tailed Iguanas, (Lava Lizards)

Östliche Kielschwanzleguane

Østlige Kølhaleleguaner

1824 Tropidurus Wied (type species: Stellio torquatus Wied 1820)
1831 Platynotus Wagler [not Platynotus Fabricius 1801 (Insecta: Coleoptera)] (type species: Agama semitaeniata Spix 1825; syn. Rodrigues 1984)
1843 Steirolepis Fitzinger (type species: Tropidurus microlophus Wiegmann 1835; syn. Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)
1845 Taraguira Gray (type species: not designated; syn. Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)
1847 Stirolepis Agassiz [substitute name for Steirolepis Fitzinger 1843]
1871 Craniopeltis Peters (type species: Craniopeltis bivittata Peters 1871; syn. Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)
1871 Laemopristis Peters (type species: Tropidurus occipitalis Peters 1871; syn. Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)
1874 Aneuporus Bocourt (type species: Aneuporus occipitalis Bocourt 1874; syn. Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)
1933 Tapinurus Amaral (type species: Tapinurus scutipunctatus Amaral 1933; syn. Frost 1992)
Contents: 27 species, of which 19 (70.4%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Frost (1992) proposed that Plica and Uracentron should be regarded as synonyms of Tropidurus. This proposal has not been generally adopted (e.g., Avila-Pires 1995).
Distribution: South America.
Reported from: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro [incl. Ilha Grande Island], Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Uruguay, Venezuela (incl. Los Frailes, Margarita).

Tropidurus azurduyae

Torotoro Keel-tailed Iguana



2018 Tropidurus azurduyae Carvalho, Rivas, Céspedes & Rodrigues

Distribution: Bolivia.

Tropidurus bogerti

Venezuelan Keel-tailed Iguana

Venezuelanischer Kielschwanzleguan

Venezuelansk Kølhaleleguan

1958 Tropidurus bogerti Roze
Plica bogerti Donoso-Barros 1968

Distribution: Venezuela.

Tropidurus callathelys

Huanchaca Keel-tailed Iguana



1998 Tropidurus callathelys Harvey & Gutberlet

Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Mato Grosso).

Tropidurus catalanensis

Uruguayan Keel-tailed Iguana

Uruguayischer Kielschwanzleguan

Uruguayisk Kølhaleleguan

1983 Tropidurus catalanensis Gudynas & Skuk
Tropidurus torquatus catalanensis Cei 1993

Remarks: Status uncertain. Revalidated as a separate species by Kunz & Borges-Martins (2013). Some authors have retained catalanensis as a subspecies of torquatus (e.g., Cacciali, Scott, Aquino-Ortiz, Fitzgerald & Smith 2016). Argentine populations may represent a distinct species (Avila, Martinez & Morando 2013). Not mentioned for Mato Grosso do Sul by Ferreira, Terra, Piatti, Delatorre, Strüssmann, Béda, Kawashita-Ribeiro, Landgref-Filho, Aoki, Campos, Souza, Ávila, Duleba, Martins, Rita & Albuquerque (2017).
Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo), Paraguay, Uruguay.

Tropidurus chromatops

Colour-faced Keel-tailed Iguana


Masket Kølhaleleguan

1998 Tropidurus chromatops Harvey & Gutberlet

Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Mato Grosso).

Tropidurus cocorobensis

Cocorobo Keel-tailed Iguana



1987 Tropidurus cocorobensis Rodrigues

Distribution: Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia, Pernambuco, Sergipe).

Tropidurus erythrocephalus

Red-headed Keel-tailed Iguana

Rotköpfiger Kielschwanzleguan

Rødhovedet Kølhaleleguan

1987 Tropidurus erythrocephalus Rodrigues

Distribution: Brazil (Bahia).

Tropidurus etheridgei

Cordoba Keel-tailed Iguana



1982 Tropidurus etheridgei Cei

Remarks: Taxonomic status of populations in Bahia and Minas Gerais and on the boundaries of Goias, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul needs reevaluation (Carvalho 2013).
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Bahia, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais), Paraguay.

Tropidurus helenae

Piaui Keel-tailed Iguana



1990 Tapinurus helenae Manzani & Abe
Tropidurus helenae Frost 1992

Distribution: Brazil (Piaui).

Tropidurus hispidus

Spotted Keel-tailed Iguana, Spotted Tree Lizard, (Northern Lava Lizard)

Gefleckter Kielschwanzleguan

Plettet Kølhaleleguan

1825 Agama hispida Spix
Tropidurus hispidus Boulenger 1885
Tropidurus torquatus hispidus Burt & Burt 1930
1825 Agama cyclurus Spix (Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)
1825 Agama nigrocollaris Spix (Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)
1845 Taraguira smithii Gray (Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)
1859 Proctotretus toelsneri Berthold (Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)
1861 Trachycyclus superciliaris Günther (Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)
1861 Tropidurus macrolepis Reinhardt & Lütken (Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of torquatus (e.g., Burt & Burt 1930, Hoogmoed 1973). Rodrigues (1987) believed that all Tropidurus populations north of the Amazon River are hispidus. Records from Bolivia (e.g., Fugler 1989; Montero, Scrocchi, Montaño-C. & Fernandez-S. 1995; Pincheira-Donoso 2002) are probably based on misidentifications (Harvey & Gutberlet 1998; Dirksen & Riva 1999). The occurrence in Manaus may represent a recent invasion of individuals transported from Roraima (Avila-Pires 1995; Carvalho 2013). Records from Mato Grosso do Sul need confirmation (Ferreira, Terra, Piatti, Delatorre, Strüssmann, Béda, Kawashita-Ribeiro, Landgref-Filho, Aoki, Campos, Souza, Ávila, Duleba, Martins, Rita & Albuquerque 2017).
Introduced to: USA (Florida).
Distribution: Brazil (Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Maranhao, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondonia, Roraima, Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Surinam, Venezuela (incl. Los Frailes, Isla Margarita).

Tropidurus hygomi

Sergipe Keel-tailed Iguana



1861 Tropidurus hygomi Reinhardt & Lütken

Distribution: Brazil (Bahia, Sergipe).

Tropidurus imbituba

Imbituba Keel-tailed Iguana



2013 Tropidurus imbituba Kunz & Borges-Martins

Distribution: Brazil (Santa Catarina).

Tropidurus insulanus

Cachimbo Keel-tailed Iguana



1987 Tropidurus insulanus Rodrigues

Remarks: Records from Goias, Brazil, are considered erroneous (Avila-Pires 1995).
Distribution: Brazil (Mato Grosso, Para, Tocantins).

Tropidurus itambere

Sorocaba Keel-tailed Iguana



1987 Tropidurus itambere Rodrigues

Distribution: Brazil (Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Parana, Sao Paulo, Tocantins).

Tropidurus jaguaribanus

Jaguaribe Valley Keel-tailed Iguana



2011 Tropidurus jaguaribanus Passos, Lima & Borges-Nojosa

Distribution: Brazil (Ceara, Piaui).

Tropidurus lagunablanca

Laguna Blanca Keel-tailed Iguana


Laguna Blanca-kølhaleleguan

2016 Tropidurus lagunablanca Carvalho
2016 Tropidurus tarara Carvalho (Cacciali & Köhler 2018)
2016 Tropidurus teyumirim Carvalho (Cacciali & Köhler 2018)

Distribution: Brazil (Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul), Paraguay.

Tropidurus melanopleurus

Black Keel-tailed Iguana

Schwarzer Kielschwanzleguan

Sort Kølhaleleguan

1902 Tropidurus melanopleurus Boulenger
1924 Tropidurus pictus Müller (Laurent 1982; Cei 1993)
Tropidurus melanopleurus pictus Laurent 1982
1924 Tropidurus praeornatus Müller (Cei 1993)

Remarks: Meier (1982) regarded praeornatus as a valid species, but without discussion.
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Peru.

Tropidurus melanopleurus
© Henrik Bringsøe

Tropidurus montanus

Minas Gerais Keel-tailed Iguana


Minas Gerais-kølhaleleguan

1987 Tropidurus montanus Rodrigues

Distribution: Brazil (Bahia, Goias, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais).

Tropidurus mucujensis

Mucuje Keel-tailed Iguana



1987 Tropidurus mucujensis Rodrigues

Distribution: Brazil (Bahia).

Tropidurus oreadicus

Cerrado Keel-tailed Iguana



1987 Tropidurus oreadicus Rodrigues

Distribution: Brazil (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Distrito Federal, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rondonia, Sergipe, Tocantins).

Tropidurus pinima

Santo Inacio Keel-tailed Iguana


Santo Inacio-kølhaleleguan

1984 Tapinurus pinima Rodrigues
Tropidurus pinima Frost 1992

Distribution: Brazil (Bahia, Pernambuco).

Tropidurus psammonastes

Barra Keel-tailed Iguana



1988 Tropidurus psammonastes Rodrigues, Kasahara & Yonenaga-Yassuda

Distribution: Brazil (Bahia, Minas Gerais).

Tropidurus semitaeniatus

Striped Keel-tailed Iguana

Gestreifter Kielschwanzleguan

Stribet Kølhaleleguan

1825 Agama semitaeniata Spix
Tropidurus semitaeniatus Boulenger 1885
Platynotus semitaeniatus Schmidt & Inger 1951
Tapinurus semitaeniatus Rodrigues 1984
1933 Tapinurus scutipunctatus Amaral (Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)

Distribution: Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceara, Maranhao, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Sergipe).

Tropidurus sertanejo

Sertão Keel-tailed Iguana



2016 Tropidurus sertanejo Carvalho, Sena, Peloso, Machado, Montesino, Silva, Campbell & Rodrigues

Distribution: Brazil (Bahia).

Tropidurus spinulosus

Spiny Keel-tailed Iguana

Dorniger Kielschwanzleguan

Tornet Kølhaleleguan

1862 Microlophus spinulosus Cope
Tropidurus spinulosus Boettger 1885
1879 Leiocephalus variegatus O'Shaughnessy (Cei 1986)
1930 Plica stejnegeri Burt & Burt (Cei 1986)
1994 Tropidurus spinulosus guarani Alvarez, Cei & Scolaro (Cacciali & Köhler 2018)
Tropidurus guarani Harvey & Gutberlet 1998

Remarks: Now restricted to Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay (Cacciali & Köhler 2018). Brazilian records refer to other species of the genus.
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay.

Tropidurus torquatus

Collared Keel-tailed Iguana, (Brazilian Collared Lizard, Amazon Lava Lizard)



1820 Stellio torquatus Wied
Tropidurus torquatus Boulenger 1885
1823 Agama brasiliensis Raddi (Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)
1825 Agama hispida tuberculata Spix (Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)
1843 Tropidurus microlepidotus Fitzinger (Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)
1845 Taraguira darwinii Gray (Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)

Remarks: Previously included catalanensis and hispidus. Records of torquatus from the Guianas (e.g., Peters and Donoso-Barros 1970) refer to hispidus (Hoogmoed 1973). Rodrigues (1987) believed that all Tropidurus populations north of the Amazon River are hispidus. Presence in Bolivia needs confirmation, and although probably present, older records of this species (e.g., Gans 1960; Cunha 1961; Fugler 1989) may have been based on other species (Harvey & Gutberlet 1998). Records from Argentina and Paraguay represent catalanensis (Avila, Martinez & Morando 2013; Cacciali, Scott, Aquino-Ortiz, Fitzgerald & Smith 2016).
Distribution: Brazil (Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro [incl. Ilha Grande Island], Sao Paulo, Tocantins).

Tropidurus xanthochilus

Yellow-lipped Keel-tailed Iguana


Gullæbet Kølhaleleguan

1998 Tropidurus xanthochilus Harvey & Gutberlet

Distribution: Bolivia.