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Taxonomy of the family Elapidae [terrestrial species]
Bibliography of the genus Bungarus
Biodiversity of the family Elapidae [terrestrial species]








Genus
Bungarus

Kraits

Kraits

Kraiter

1803 Bungarus Daudin (type species: Bungarus annularis Daudin 1803)
1811 Pseudoboa Oppel [not Pseudoboa Schneider 1801 (Serpentes)] (type species: Pseudoboa fasciata Schneider 1801; syn. Golay & al. 1993)
1828 Aspidoclonion Wagler (type species: Bungarus semifasciatus Boie 1827; syn. Golay & al. 1993)
Aspidoclonium Agassiz 1844 [emendation]
1849 Megaerophis Gray (type species: Megaerophis formosus Gray 1849; syn. Golay & al. 1993)
1864 Xenurelaps Günther (type species: Elaps bungaroides Cantor 1839; syn. Golay & al. 1993)
Contents: 16 species, of which 4 (25.0%) are endemic.
Remarks: The genus was reported from the Nicobar Islands by Daniel & David (1996), but without reference to voucher specimens. Presence in these islands needs confirmation (Vijayakumar & David 2006).
Distribution: S. Asia, Malay Archipelago.
Reported from: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hong Kong [incl. Shek Kwu Chau Island], Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Macau, Sichuan, Tibet, Yunnan, Zhejiang), India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Andaman Islands], Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Indonesia (Bali, Bangka, Bawean Islands, Belitung, Java, Kalimantan, Karimunjawa Islands, Nias, Sumatra), Iran, Laos, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago, Seribuat Archipelago (incl. Tioman)]), Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).

Bungarus andamanensis

Andaman Krait

Andamanischer Krait

Andamansk Krait

1978 Bungarus andamanensis Biswas & Sanyal

Distribution: India (Andaman Islands).


Bungarus bungaroides

Northeastern Hill Krait, Himalayan Krait, (Cantor's Krait)

Cantors Krait

Himalayakrait

1839 Elaps bungaroides Cantor
Xenurelaps bungaroides Günther 1864
Bungarus bungaroides Boulenger 1890

Remarks: Records from Vietnam (e.g., Orlov, Ryabov, Ngyuen & Nguyen 2003) refer to slowinskii (Kuch, Kizirian, Nguyen, Lawson, Donnelly & Mebs 2005; Nguyen, Ho & Nguyen 2009).
Distribution: Bhutan, China (Tibet), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal), Myanmar, Nepal.


Bungarus caeruleus

Blue Krait, Common Krait, Indian Krait

Indischer Krait

Indisk Blå Krait, (Almindelig Krait)

1801 Pseudoboa caerulea Schneider
Bungarus caeruleus Müller 1890
Bungarus candidus caeruleus Boulenger 1896
1801 Boa lineata Shaw (Golay & al. 1993)
1854 Bungarus arcuatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Previously included sindanus. Reports from the Andaman Islands probably refer to andamanensis (Das 1999). A record of from Afghanistan (Král 1969; repeated by Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013) is regarded as representing sindanus, following Wagner, Bauer, Leviton, Wilms & Böhme (2016), however, the presence of the species in the country is not unlikely.
Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.


Bungarus candidus

Malayan Krait, (Blue Krait)

Malaiischer Krait, Blauer Krait

Malayisk Krait

1758 Coluber candidus Linnaeus
Bungarus candidus Cantor 1847
1827 Bungarus semifasciatus Boie (Golay & al. 1993)
1932 Bungarus javanicus Kopstein (Slowinski 1994; Kuch & Mebs 2007)

Other common names:
javanicus: Javanese Krait
Remarks: Present in the past, but not confirmed recently from Singapore (Baker & Lim 2008). Dash & Kar's (1990) record of candidus from Odisha (India) might be a mistake for caeruleus (Dutta & Acharjyo 1997). Presence in Sulawesi needs confirmation, since only a single voucher specimen is available from the island (De Lang & Vogel 2005).
Extinct in: Singapore.
Introduced to: Indonesia (Sulawesi).
Distribution: Cambodia, Indonesia (Bali, Bawean Islands, Java, Karimunjawa Islands, Nias, Sumatra), Laos, Malaysia (West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago]), Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam.


Bungarus ceylonicus

Sri Lankan Krait

Srilankanische Krait, Ceylon-Krait

Srilankansk Krait

1864 Bungarus ceylonicus Günther
1955 Bungarus ceylonicus karavala Deraniyagala (Golay & al. 1993)

Distribution: Sri Lanka.


Bungarus fasciatus

Banded Krait

Gebänderter Krait, Gelbgebänderter Krait, Bänder-Krait, Gelber Krair

Bredbåndet Krait, (Båndet Krait)

1801 Pseudoboa Fasciata Schneider
Boa fasciata Shaw 1802
Bungarus fasciatus Cantor 1847
1803 Bungarus annularis Daudin (Golay & al. 1993)
1930 Bungarus fasciatus bifasciatus Mell (Taylor 1965)
1930 Bungarus fasciatus insularis Mell (Taylor 1965)

Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hong Kong, Yunnan), India (Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Indonesia (Bali, Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Laos, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia), Myanmar, Nepal, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).


Bungarus flaviceps

Red-headed Krait, Yellow-headed Krait

Rotkopf-Krait

Rødhovedet Krait

1843 Bungarus flaviceps Reinhardt
Megaerophis flaviceps Günther 1864
1849 Megaerophis formosus Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
1938 Bungarus flaviceps baluensis Loveridge
1942 Maticora intermedia Westermann (Brongersma 1947)

Other common names:
baluensis: Kinabalu Krait
Remarks: Presence in Java is doubtful (Iskandar & Colijn 2001), although reported from the island in some works (e.g., Brongersma in Dammerman 1929; Hodges 1993; Golay & al. 1993; Whitten & McCarthy 1993). Presence in Cambodia (e.g., Golay & al. 1993; Nguyen, Ho & Nguyen 2009) and Vietnam (e.g., Campden-Main 1970; Nguyen, Ho & Nguyen 2009; Orlov, Ryabov, Ngyuen & Nguyen 2003; Smith 1943) is also doubtful and probably based on misidentified or misallocated specimens (Wüster in David & Ineich 1999, p. 386).
Distribution: Brunei, Indonesia (Bangka, Belitung, Kalimantan, Nias, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Seribuat Archipelago (incl. Tioman)]), Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand.


Bungarus lividus

Lesser Black Krait

Kleiner Schwarzer Krait

Lille Sort Krait

1839 Bungarus lividus Cantor
Bungarus candidus lividus Cantor 1847

Remarks: Chinese records (Tian & Jiang 1986; Zhao 1990) refer to melanistic specimens of multicinctus (Zhao & Adler 1993; David & Ineich 1999).
Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India (Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal), Nepal.


Bungarus magnimaculatus

Burmese Krait, Spotted Krait, Splendid Krait

Gefleckter Krait

Burmesisk Krait

1901 Bungarus cæruleus magnimaculatus Wall & Evans
Bungarus magnimaculatus Wall 1908

Distribution: Myanmar.


Bungarus multicinctus

Many-banded Krait, Chinese Krait, Umbrella Snake

Vielbinden-Krait

Smalbåndet Krait

1861 Bungarus multicinctus Blyth "1860"
Bungarus candidus multicinctus Boulenger 1896

Remarks: Previously included wanghaotensis. Reports from the Andaman Islands refer to andamanensis (Das 1999). The photographic record from Thailand in Chan-ard, Grossmann, Gumprecht & Schulz (1999) was in fact a Lycodon septentrionale (David, Cox, Pauwels, Chanhome & Thirakhupt 2004).
Distribution: China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong [incl. Nan Ao Island], Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hong Kong [incl. Shek Kwu Chau Island], Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Macau, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Myanmar, Taiwan, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).


Bungarus niger

Greater Black Krait

Großer Schwarzer Krait

Stor Sort Krait

1908 Bungarus niger Wall

Remarks: Chinese records (Tian & Jiang 1986; Zhao 1990) refer to melanistic specimens of multicinctus (Zhao & Adler 1993; David & Ineich 1999).
Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Myanmar, Nepal.


Bungarus persicus

Persian Krait

Persischer Krait

Persisk Krait

2014 Bungarus persicus Abtin, Nilson, Mobaraki, Hosseini & Dehgannejhad

Distribution: Iran.


Bungarus sindanus

Sind Krait

Sind-Krait

Pakistansk Krait

1897 Bungarus sindanus Boulenger
Bungarus caeruleus sindanus Klemmer 1963
1985 Bungarus sindanus razai Khan

Other common names:
razai: Northwestern Punjab Krait, (Raza's Krait)
sindanus: Common Sind Krait
Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of caeruleus. Revalidated by Khan (1984). Previously included walli.
Distribution: Afghanistan, India (Gujarat), Pakistan.


Bungarus slowinskii

Red River Krait, (Slowinski's Krait)

Slowinskis Krait

Tonkin-krait

2005 Bungarus slowinskii Kuch, Kizirian, Truong, Lawson, Donnelly & Mebs

Distribution: Laos, Vietnam.


Bungarus walli

Faizabad Krait, (Wall's Krait)

Faizabad-Krait

Faizabad-krait

1907 Bungarus walli Wall
Bungarus sindanus walli Khan 1985

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of sindanus (e.g., Khan 1985). Considered a separate species by most recent works (e.g., Ahmed & Dasgupta 1992; Sharma 2003; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014; Ahsan & Rahman 2017). Records from Nepal (Mahendra 1984; Das 1996) need confirmation (Schleich & Kästle (eds.) 2002; Kästle, Rai & Schleich 2013).
Distribution: Bangladesh, India (Bihar, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal).


Bungarus wanghaotingi

Yunnan Krait, (Wanghaoting's Krait)

Yunnan-Krait

Yunnan-krait

1928 Bungarus wanghaotingi Pope
Bungarus multicinctus wanghaotingi Mell 1931
Bungarus candidus wanghaotingi Deuve 1970

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Leviton, Wogan, Koo, Zug, Lucas & Vindum (2003). Validity questioned by Vogel (2006).
Distribution: China (Yunnan), Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).