Taxonomy: families
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Turtles (Testudines)


Narrow-bridged Musk Turtle

American Mud Turtles

Giant Musk Turtles

North American Musk Turtles

Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (
Latest update: May 12th, 2024.

Biodiversity of the family Kinosternidae Bibliography of the family Kinosternidae


American Mud and Musk Turtles
Schlammschildkröten     Slamskildpadder

Contents: Endemicity:
4 genera of which none are endemic  0% 100%
33 species of which 18 (54.5%) are endemic  0% 100%

Remarks: Includes two subfamilies (Kinosterninae, Staurotypinae), which were separated and raised to family status by Iverson, Le & Ingram (2013), although some authors had already regarded them as such (e.g., Bickham & Carr 1983; King & Burke 1989; Vetter 2005; Casas-Andreu, Mendez-de la Cruz & Aguilar-Miguel 2004). This taxonomy has not been met with general acceptance, so the traditional classification as a single family with two subfamilies is retained herein, following several subsequent works (e.g., Vitt & Caldwell 2014; Crawford, Parham, Sellas, Faircloth, Glenn, Papenfuss, Henderson, Hansen & Simison 2015; Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017; Shaffer, McCartney-Melstad, Near, Mount & Spinks 2017).

Distribution:  North America, Central America, South America.

Reported from:
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago, USA, Venezuela.