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Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: December 31st, 2022.

Taxonomy of the family Viperidae
Bibliography of the genus Viridovipera
Biodiversity of the family Viperidae


Green Tree Pitvipers

Grüne Bambusottern

Asiatiske Grønne Træhugorme

2004 Viridovipera Malhotra & Thorpe (type species: Trimeresurus stejnegeri Schmidt 1925)
Contents: 7 species, of which 1 (14.3%) is endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: The species of this genus were previously included in Trimeresurus (e.g., McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999).
Distribution: E. Asia.
Reported from: Cambodia, China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Sichuan, Tibet, Yunnan, Zhejiang), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal), Laos, Myanmar, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).

Viridovipera gumprechti

Phu Luang Green Tree Pitviper, (Gumprecht’s Green Pitviper)

Phu-Luang-Bambusotter, (Gumprechts Bambusotter)

Phu Luang-træhugorm

2002 Trimeresurus gumprechti David, Vogel, Pauwels & Vidal
Viridovipera gumprechti Malhotra & Thorpe 2004

Distribution: China (Hainan, Yunnan), India (Meghalaya), Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.

Viridovipera gumprechti
© Henrik Bringsøe

Viridovipera mayaae

Champhai Green Tree Pitviper, (Maya's Pitviper)



2022 Trimeresurus mayaae Rathee, Purkayastha, Lalremsanga, Dalal, Biakzuala, Muansanga & Mirza
Viridovipera mayaae Midtgaard 2022 (www.repfocus.dk)

Remarks: Previously confused with stejnegeri, yunnanensis, or gumprechti.
Distribution: India (Meghalaya, Mizoram).

Viridovipera medoensis

Medo Green Tree Pitviper, Medo Pitviper, Motuo Bamboo Pitviper, Green Bamboo Leaf Pitviper



1977 Trimeresurus medoensis Zhao in Zhao & Jiang
Viridovipera medoensis Malhotra & Thorpe 2004

Distribution: China (Tibet), India (Arunachal Pradesh), Myanmar.

Viridovipera stejnegeri

Chinese Green Tree Pitviper, Chinese Tree Pitviper, (Stejneger's Bamboo Pitviper, Stejneger's Pitviper, Bamboo Pitviper)

Chinesische Bambusotter

Kinesisk Grøn Træhugorm

1925 Trimeresurus stejnegeri Schmidt
Trimeresurus gramineus stejnegeri Stejneger 1927
Viridovipera stejnegeri Malhotra & Thorpe 2004
1930 Trimeresurus carinatus carinatus Takahashi [not Cryptelytrops carinatus Cope 1860] (Golay & al. 1993)
1931 Trimeresurus gramineus formosensis Maki [not Trimeresurus monticola formosensis Mell 1931] (Golay & al. 1993)
Trimeresurus stejnegeri formosensis Welch 1988
1931 Trimeresurus gramineus kodairai Maki (Golay & al. 1993)
Trimeresurus stejnegeri kodairai Welch 1988
1963 Trimeresurus stejnegeri makii Klemmer [substitute name for Trimeresurus gramineus formosensis Maki 1931] (Golay & al. 1993)
1995 Trimeresurus stejnegeri chenbihuii Zhao

Other common names:
chenbihuii: Chen’s Bamboo Pitviper
formosensis: Taiwan Bamboo Pitviper
kodairi: Taiwan Montane Bamboo Pitviper, Aniao Habu
stejnegeri: Ao Habu
Remarks: Previously included yunnanensis and populations now known as gumprechti and vogeli. Records from India refer to gumprechti and yunnanensis, although its has been suggested that stejnegeri may occur in India (Malhotra & Thorpe 2004), but there are currently no vouchered records from the country (Ao, David, Bordoloi & Ohler 2004; David & Mathew 2005). Records from Nepal refer to Himalayophis tibetanus (Das 1996). Records from Thailand refer to gumprechti and vogeli, although stejnegeri may prove to exist in that country (Gumprecht, Tillack, Orlov, Captain & Ryabov 2004). Recently confirmed from Laos (Teynie, Nguyen, Lorvelec, Piquet, Lottier & David 2014), but older records from this country (e.g., Stuart 1999; David, Vidal & Pauwels 2001) refer to other species. Leviton, Wogan, Koo, Zug, Lucas & Vindum (2003) removed the species from the Myanmar snake checklist, but it was subsequently reported from the southernmost part of the country by Mulcahy, Lee, Miller, Chand, Thura & Zug (2018). However, this record is questioned herein, due to the far distance to the remainder of the species' range and to the lack of supporting molecular evidence.
Distribution: China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Laos, Taiwan, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).

Viridovipera truongsonensis

Truong Son Pitviper, Quang Binh Pitviper

Quang Binh-Bambusotter

Truong Son-træhugorm

2004 Trimeresurus truongsonensis Orlov, Ryabov, Thanh & Cuc
Viridovipera truongsonensis Grismer, Ngo & Grismer 2008

Remarks: Grismer, Ngo & Grismer (2008) tentatively assigned this species to the genus Viridovipera, pending molecular studies in progress. Validity of this generic assigment was confirmed by Dawson, Malhotra, Thorpe, Guo, Mrinalini & Ziegler (2008).
Distribution: Laos, Vietnam.

Viridovipera vogeli

Khao Yai Green Tree Pitviper, (Vogel’s Green Pitviper)

Khao-Yai-Bambusotter, (Vogels Bambusotter)

Khao Yai-træhugorm

2001 Trimeresurus vogeli David, Vidal & Pauwels
Viridovipera vogeli Malhotra & Thorpe 2004

Distribution: Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam.

Viridovipera vogeli
© Henrik Bringsøe

Viridovipera yunnanensis

Yunnan Green Tree Pitviper, Yunnan Bamboo Pitviper, Yunnan Pitviper



1925 Trimeresurus yunnanensis Schmidt
Trimeresurus stejnegeri yunnanensis Maslin 1942
Viridovipera yunnanensis Malhotra & Thorpe 2004

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Zhao (1995). Validity supported by Malhotra & Thorpe (2004) and Guo, Lu, Huang, Zhao & Zhao (2006). Exact limits of distribution is still not clear (Guo, Malhotra, Thorpe, Creer & Pook 2009). Records from Nepal most likely refer to Himalayophis tibetanus (Schleich & Kästle (eds.) 2002).
Distribution: China (Sichuan, Yunnan), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal), Myanmar, Vietnam.