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© Rune Midtgaard

Taxonomy of the family Typhlopidae
Bibliography of the genus Ramphotyphlops
Biodiversity of the family Typhlopidae


Western Pacific Blind Snakes, Long-tailed Blind Snakes, (Australasian Blind Snakes)

Westpazifische Blindschlangen

Vestpacifiske Ormeslanger

1830 Typhlina Wagler [not Typhlina Ehrenberg in Hemprich 1828 (Rotifera)] (type species: Acontias lineatus Reinwardt 1830 [nomen nudum] and Anguis septem-striatus Schneider 1801) [suppressed by ICZN (1982): Opinion 1207; see McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999; Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009)
Typhlira Jan 1861 [lapsus for Typhlina]
1843 Ramphotyphlops Fitzinger (type species: Typhlops multilineatus Schlegel 1839)
1844 Pilidion Dumeril & Bibron [substitute name for Typhlina Wagler 1830, erroneously believed preoccupied by Typhline Wiegmann 1834]
1845 Typhlinalis Gray [substitute name for Typhlina Wagler 1830]
1864 Typhlina Jan [not Typhlina Ehrenberg in Hemprich 1828 (Rotifera); not Typhlina Wagler 1830 (Serpentes)] (type species: Typhlops lineatus Schlegel 1839)
Contents: 23 species, of which 19 (82.6%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Previously included Cathetorhinus melanocephalus, now assigned to the family Gerrhopilidae.
Distribution: SE. Asia, Malay Archipelago, W. Pacific Ocean.
Reported from: Cambodia, Christmas Island, Indonesia (Ambon, Bacan, Bangka, Batanta, Halmahera, Java, Kai Islands, Kalimantan, Miang Island, Madura, Misool, Morotai, Nias, Obi, Salawati, Sangir Islands [Sangir], Seram, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Ternate, Tidore, Western New Guinea), Laos, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Seribuat Archipelago (Tioman)]), Micronesia (incl. Pohnpei [incl. Ant Atoll], Yap State [incl. Ulithi Atoll]), Myanmar, New Caledonia (incl. Loyalty Islands), Palau, Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago [Admiralty Islands (Manus), Duke of York, New Britain, New Ireland], North Solomon Islands [Bougainville], Woodlark), Philippines (Bohol, Cebu, Mindanao, Negros, Panay, Polillo, Samar, Sulu Islands [Basilan, Bubuan, Sibutu]), Solomon Islands (incl. Guadalcanal, Rennell), Thailand.

Ramphotyphlops acuticauda

Palau Blind Snake



1877 Typhlops acuticauda Peters
Typhlina acuticauda Hahn 1980
Ramphotyphlops acuticaudus Bauer, Günther & Klipfel 1995

Remarks: Although the grammatical gender of Ramphotyphlops is masculine, the ending of the specific epithet, acuticauda, should not be changed to "-us", since it is a noun in aposition, not an adjective (see Böhme & Denzer 2019).
Distribution: Palau.

Ramphotyphlops adocetus

Ant Atoll Blind Snake


Ant Atoll-ormeslange

2012 Ramphotyphlops adocetus Wynn, Reynolds, Buden, Falanruw & Lynch

Distribution: Micronesia (Pohnpei: Ant Atoll).

Ramphotyphlops albiceps

Southeast Asian White-headed Blind Snake

Südostasiatische Weißkopf-Blindschlange

Sydøstasiatisk Hvidhovedet Ormeslange

1898 Typhlops albiceps Boulenger
Typhlina albiceps Hahn 1980
Ramphotyphlops albiceps Tweedie 1983
Indotyphlops albiceps Hedges, Marion, Lipp, Marin & Vidal 2014
1937 Typhlops malaisei Rendahl (Smith 1943; McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999)

Distribution: Cambodia, China (Hong Kong), Malaysia (West Malaysia [incl. Seribuat Archipelago (incl. Tioman)]), Myanmar, Thailand.

Ramphotyphlops angusticeps

Arboreal Blind Snake


Klatrende Ormeslange

1878 Typhlops angusticeps Peters
Typhlina angusticeps McDowell 1974
Ramphotyphlops angusticeps McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999
1921 Typhlops olivaceus reduncus Barbour (Hahn 1980)

Remarks: Presence of angusticeps in New Caledonia, the type locality, is regarded as an error (McDowell 1974; Bauer & Sadlier 2000).
Distribution: Solomon Islands (incl. Guadalcanal, Rennell).

Ramphotyphlops becki

Guadalcanal Blind Snake, (Beck's Blind Snake)



1948 Typhlops becki Tanner
Ramphotyphlops becki Shea & Wallach 2000

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of willeyi (e.g., McDowell 1974; Hahn 1980; McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999). Revalidated by Shea & Wallach (2000).
Distribution: Solomon Islands (Guadalcanal).

Ramphotyphlops bipartitus

Tidore Blind Snake



1879 Typhlops bipartitus Sauvage
Ramphotyphlops bipartitus Pyron & Wallach 2014

Remarks: Not listed by Hedges, Marion, Lipp, Marin & Vidal (2014). The Reptile Database tentatively considered it a synonym of Sundatyphlops polygrammicus, but without references. Validity confirmed by Pyron & Wallach (2014).
Distribution: Indonesia (Tidore).

Ramphotyphlops conradi

Sulawesi Blind Snake, (Conrad's Blind Snake)



1874 Typhlops conradi Peters
Ramphotyphlops conradi Hedges, Marion, Lipp, Marin & Vidal 2014

Distribution: Indonesia (Sulawesi).

Ramphotyphlops cumingii

Cumming's Blind Snake

Cummings Blindschlange

Cummings Ormeslange

1845 Onychophis cumingii Gray
Onychocephalus cumingii Boettger 1886
Typhlops cumingii Boulenger 1893
Typhlina cumingii McDowell 1974
Ramphotyphlops cumingii Wynn & Leviton 1993
1919 Typhlops longicauda Taylor (Hahn 1980)
1919 Typhlops rugosa Taylor (Hahn 1980)
1922 Typhlops dendrophis Taylor (Hahn 1980)
1922 Typhlops mindanensis Taylor (Hahn 1980)

Remarks: Leviton, Siler, Weinell & Brown (2018) did not include Panay in the distribution of the species.
Distribution: Philippines (Bohol, Cebu, Mindanao, Negros, Panay, Polillo).

Ramphotyphlops depressus

Melanesian Blind Snake, Solomon Islands Round-nosed Blind Snake

Melanesische Blindschlange

Melanesisk Ormeslange

1881 Typhlops depressus Peters
Ramphotyphlops depressus Wallach 1996
1887 Typhlops aluensis Boulenger (Wallach 1996)
Ramphotyphlops aluensis Robb 1966

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of flaviventer (e.g., McDowell 1974; Hahn 1980). Revalidated by Wallach (1996).
Distribution: Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago [Admiralty Islands (Manus), Duke of York, New Britain, New Ireland], North Solomon Islands [Bougainville], Woodlark), Solomon Islands (incl. Guadalcanal).

Ramphotyphlops exocoeti

Christmas Island Blind Snake


Christmas Island-ormeslange

1887 Typhlops exocoeti Boulenger
Typhlina exocoeti Hahn 1980
Ramphotyphlops exocoeti Cogger, Cameron & Cogger 1983
1918 Typhlops capensis Rendahl (Wallach & Glaw 2009)

Remarks: Wallach (2003) discussed the generic allocation of exocoeti.
Distribution: Christmas Island.

Ramphotyphlops flaviventer

Yellow-bellied Blind Snake


Gulbuget Ormeslange

1865 Typhlops flaviventer Peters
Typhlina flaviventer McDowell 1974
Ramphotyphlops flaviventer Wallach 1996
1898 Typhlops philococos Werner (Hahn 1980)
1933 Typhlops buehleri Hediger (Hahn 1980)
Ramphotyphlops buehleri Robb 1966

Remarks: Previously included depressus, similis, and supranasalis (e.g., Hahn 1980). Wallach (1996) restricted the range of flaviventer to eastern Indonesia (incl. Western New Guinea). Records from Papua New Guinean islands and Solomon Islands refer to those other species.
Distribution: Indonesia (Bacan, Batanta, Halmahera, Misool, Morotai, Obi, Salawati, Ternate, Tidore, Western New Guinea).

Ramphotyphlops hatmaliyeb

Ulithi Atoll Blind Snake



2012 Ramphotyphlops hatmaliyeb Wynn, Reynolds, Buden, Falanruw & Lynch

Distribution: Micronesia (Yap State: Ulithi Atoll).

Ramphotyphlops lineatus

Striped Blind Snake, Lined Blind Snake

Südostasiatische Gestreifte Blindschlange

Sydøstasiatisk Stribet Ormeslange

1839 Typhlops lineatus Schlegel
Typhlina lineata Fitzinger 1843
Pilidion lineatum Duméril & Bibron 1844
Typhlinalis lineatum Gray 1845
Ramphotyphlops lineatus Robb 1966
1896 Typhlops lineatus var. sumatranus Werner

Remarks: Present in the past, but not confirmed recently from Singapore (Baker & Lim 2008). Reported from Hong Kong and Indochina by several authors (e.g., Hahn 1980; McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999; Iskandar & Colijn 2001), but this has long been shown to be incorrect (e.g. Pope 1935, Taylor 1965; Bain & Hurley 2011).
Extinct in: Singapore.
Distribution: Indonesia (Bangka, Java, Kalimantan, Madura, Nias, Sumatra), Laos, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia), Thailand.

Ramphotyphlops lorenzi

Miang Island Blind Snake, (Lorenz' Blind Snake)



1909 Typhlops lorenzi Werner
Ramphotyphlops lorenzi Stuebing 1991

Distribution: Indonesia (Kalimantan: Miang Island).

Ramphotyphlops mansuetus

Solomon Islands Small-headed Blind Snake


Småhovedet Salomon-ormeslange

1921 Typhlops cumingi mansuetus Barbour
Sivadictus mansuetus Wells & Wellington 1985
Ramphotyphlops mansuetus Wallach 2003

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of affinis (e.g., Hahn 1980; McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999). Revalidated by Wallach (2003).
Distribution: Papua New Guinea (North Solomon Islands [Bougainville]), Solomon Islands.

Ramphotyphlops marxi

Northwest Samar Blind Snake, (Marx's Blind Snake)

Nordwestliche Samar-Blindschlange

Nordvestlig Samar-ormeslange

1993 Typhlops marxi Wallach
Ramphotyphlops marxi Hedges, Marion, Lipp, Marin & Vidal 2014

Distribution: Philippines (Samar).

Ramphotyphlops mollyozakiae

Sakaerat Blind Snake, (Ozaki's Blind Snake)

Sakaerat-Blindschlange, (Ozaki's Blindschlange)

Sakaerat-ormeslange, (Ozakis Ormeslange)

1999 Typhlops ozakiae Niyomwan [nomen nudum] (syn. Wallach 2020)
Ramphotyphlops ozakiae Niyomwan 1999
Indotyphlops ozakiae Hedges, Marion, Lipp, Marin & Vidal 2014
2020 Ramphotyphlops mollyozakiae Wallach
Indotyphlops mollyozakiae Midtgaard 2020 (www.repfocus.dk)

Remarks: This species was known informally for a couple of decades as Ramphotyphlops ozakiae (subsequently as Typhlops ozakiae or Indotyphlops ozakiae), pending a formal desciption which was never published, however. Finally, Wallach (2020) described it under the name Ramphotyphlops mollyozakiae. So far known only from Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve, Pak Thong Chai District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand (Chan-Ard 2012), but the locality plotted in Chan-Ard (2012) is misplaced. According to Cox, Hoover, Chanhome & Thirakhupt (2012), there is a questionable single specimen from Sumatra, which needs confirmation.
Distribution: Thailand.

Ramphotyphlops multilineatus

Indonesian Hook-nosed Blind Snake

Indonesische Hakennasen-Blindschlange

Indonesisk Krognæset Ormeslange

1839 Typhlops multilineatus Schlegel
Rhinotyphlops multilineatus Fitzinger 1843
Onychocephalus multilineatus Duméril & Bibron 1944
Onychophis multicarinatus [lapsus] Gray 1845
Typhlina multilineata McDowell 1974
Ramphotyphlops multilineatus Robb 1966

Distribution: Indonesia (Kai Islands, Salawati, Western New Guinea).

Ramphotyphlops olivaceus

Olive Blind Snake, Keel-nosed Blind Snake

Olivenfarbige Blindschlange

Olivenfarvet Ormeslange

1845 Onychophis olivaceus Gray
Onychocephalus olivaceus Peters 1861
Typhlops olivaceus Boulenger 1893
Typhlina olivacea McDowell 1974
Ramphotyphlops olivaceus Wynn & Leviton 1993
1921 Typhlops ligorostris Smith & Procter (Hahn 1980)

Remarks: Reports from Sulawesi are considered doubtful (Koch 2012).
Distribution: Indonesia (Ambon, Kalimantan, Misool, Sangir Islands [Sangir], Seram), Malaysia (Sarawak), Philippines (Samar, Sulu Islands [Bubuan]).

Ramphotyphlops similis

Twenty-rowed Blind Snake


Tyvestribet Ormeslange

1934 Typhlops similis Brongersma
Ramphotyphlops similis Cogger, Cameron & Cogger 1983

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of flaviventer (e.g., Hahn 1980). Revalidated by Wallach (1996).
Distribution: Indonesia (Western New Guinea).

Ramphotyphlops suluensis

Sulu Islands Blind Snake



1918 Typhlops suluensis Taylor
Ramphotyphlops suluensis Gaulke 1995

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of olivaceus (e.g., Hahn 1980). Revalidated by Gaulke (1995, 1996).
Distribution: Philippines (Sulu Islands [Basilan, Bubuan, Sibutu]).

Ramphotyphlops supranasalis

Salawati Blind Snake



1934 Typhlops supranasalis Brongersma
Ramphotyphlops supranasalis Wallach 1996

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of flaviventer (e.g., Hahn 1980). Revalidated by Wallach (1996).
Distribution: Indonesia (Salawati).

Ramphotyphlops willeyi

Loyalty Islands Blind Snake


Loyalty Islands-ormeslange

1900 Typhlops willeyi Boulenger
Typhlina willeyi McDowell 1974
Ramphotyphlops willeyi Wallach 1995

Remarks: Previously included becki. Records from Solomon Islands (Guadalcanal) (e.g., Hahn 1980) refer to becki (McCoy 2006).
Distribution: New Caledonia (Loyalty Islands).