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Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: December 31st, 2022.

Taxonomy of the family Lacertidae
Bibliography of the genus Timon
Biodiversity of the family Lacertidae


Ocellated Lizards



1836 Timon Tschudi (type species: Lacerta ocellata Daudin 1802)
1843 Chrysolamprus Fitzinger (type species: Lacerta ocellata Daudin 1802; syn. Arnold, Arribas & Carranza 2007)
1868 Agetosaura Gistel (type species: Lacerta margaritata Schinz 1833; syn. Mertens & Wermuth 1960; Mayer & Bischoff 1996)
Contents: 6 species, of which 2 (33.3%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym or subgenus of Lacerta. Revalidated as separate genus by Mayer & Bischoff (1996). See remarks under tangitanus regarding the presence of this genus in Western Sahara.
Introduced to: Spain (Balearic Islands: Mallorca), United Kingdom (England).
Distribution: SW. Europe, NW. Africa, Middle East.
Reported from: Algeria, Andorra, France, Gibraltar, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, Western Sahara.

Timon kurdistanicus

Kurdish Ocellated Lizard

Kurdische Perleidechse

Kurdisk Perlefirben

1936 Lacerta princeps kurdistanica Suchov
Timon princeps kurdistanica Sindaco, Venchi, Carpaneto & Bologna 2000
Timon kurdistanicus Ahmadzadeh, Carretero, Harris, Perera & Böhme 2012

Distribution: Iran, Iraq, Turkey.

Timon lepidus

Northern Ocellated Lizard, (European Ocellated Lizard, Jewelled Lizard, Eyed Lizard)

Nördliche Perleidechse, (Europäische Perleidechse)

Nordligt Perlefirben, (Europæisk Perlefirben)

1802 Lacerta lepida Daudin
Timon lepidus Mayer & Bischoff 1996
1802 Lacerta jamaicensis Daudin (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1802 Lacerta ocellata Daudin [not Lacerta ocellata Forskål 1775 (Scincidae)] (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1804 Lacerta occitanica Herrmann (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1834 Lacerta margaritata Schinz [1833-35] [substitute name for Lacerta ocellata Daudin 1802] (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1884 Lacerta ocellata iberica Seoane (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
Lacerta lepida iberica Bischoff 1993
1969 Lacerta stiegleri Larue (Bischoff 1982)
1993 Lacerta lepida oteroi Regalado & Arias (Bischoff 1996)
Timon lepidus oteroorum Michels & Bauer 2004 [justified emendation]

Remarks: Previously included nevadensis, pater and tangitanus.
Introduced to: Spain (Balearic Islands: Mallorca), United Kingdom (England).
Distribution: Andorra, France, Gibraltar, Italy, Portugal, Spain.

Timon lepidus
© Henrik Bringsøe

Timon nevadensis

Sierra Nevada Ocellated Lizard

Südostiberische Perleidechse

Sydøstiberisk Perlefirben

1963 Lacerta lepida nevadensis Buchholz
Timon lepidus nevadensis Mayer & Bischoff 1996
Timon nevadensis Ahmadzadeh, Flecks, Carretero, Böhme, Ihlow, Kapli, Miraldo & Rodder 2016

Remarks: Miraldo (2009) suggested that nevadensis could be a separate species. It has subsequently been treated as such by several authors (e.g., Ahmadzadeh, Flecks, Carretero, Böhme, Ihlow, Kapli, Miraldo & Rodder 2016).
Distribution: Spain.

Timon pater

North African Ocellated Lizard

Nordafrikanische Perleidechse

Nordafrikansk Perlefirben

1880 Lacerta ocellata pater Lataste
Lacerta pater Bedriaga 1886
Lacerta lepida pater Angel 1946
Timon pater Mayer & Bischoff 1996
1885 Lacerta ocellata viridissima Boettger (Boulenger 1920)

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Bischoff (1982) and Busack (1987).
Distribution: Algeria, Tunisia.

Timon princeps

Zagros Ocellated Lizard, (Zagros Lizard)



1874 Lacerta princeps Blanford
Timon princeps Mayer & Bischoff 1996

Remarks: Previously included kurdistanica. Bischoff (1996) included Syria in the range of the species, but Disi & Böhme (1996) and Sindaco, Venchi, Carpaneto & Bologna (2000) did not.
Distribution: Iran.

Timon tangitanus

Moroccan Ocellated Lizard


Marokkansk Perlefirben

1887 Lacerta ocellata var. tangitana Boulenger
Lacerta pater tangitana Mateo 1990
Lacerta tangitana Mateo, Lopez-Jurado & Guillaume 1996
Timon tangitanus Arnold, Arribas & Carranza 2007

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym or subspecies of lepidus, and more recently of pater. Status in Western Sahara is uncertain. Large lizards were recorded from the country by Valverde (1957) as lepidus. These lizards may in fact have been an undescribed species or, more likely, tangitanus, however the presence in that country of any large species of this genus has not been confirmed in spite of many searches (Geniez, Mateo, Geniez & Pether 2004).
Distribution: Algeria, Morocco, Western Sahara.

Timon tangitanus
© Henrik Bringsøe