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Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: October 31st, 2023.

Taxonomy of the family Lacertidae
Bibliography of the genus Acanthodactylus
Biodiversity of the family Lacertidae


Fringe-toed Lizards, Spiny-footed Lizards, Fringe-fingered Lizards, (Sand Racers)



1834 Acanthodactylus Fitzinger in Wiegmann (type species: Lacerta boskiana Daudin 1802)
1843 Chorodromus Fitzinger (type species: Acanthodactylus lineomaculatus Dumeril & Bibron 1839; syn. Salvador 1982)
1843 Ctenodactylus Fitzinger (type species: Acanthodactylus vulgaris Dumeril & Bibron 1839; syn. Salvador 1982)
1843 Photophilus Fitzinger (type species: Lacerta scutellata Audouin 1829; syn. Salvador 1982)
1843 Psammoplanis Fitzinger (type species: Lacerta savignyi Audouin 1829; syn. Salvador 1982)
1918 Taenieremias Boulenger (type species: Eremias guineensis Boulenger 1887; syn. Salvador 1982)
Contents: 45 species, of which 14 (31.1%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Includes guineensis, previously placed in Eremias. Szczerbak (1975) regarded Taenieremias as a valid genus, including only guineensis.
Distribution: Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Cyprus, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Eritrea (incl. Dahlak Archipelago), Ghana, India (Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Oman (incl. Masirah), Pakistan, Portugal, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Spain, Sudan, Syria, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Western Sahara, Yemen.

Acanthodactylus aegyptius

Egyptian Fringe-toed Lizard

Ägyptische Fransenfingereidechse

Ægyptisk Frynsefingerfirben

2007 Acanthodactylus aegyptius Baha el Din

Distribution: Egypt (incl. Sinai), Israel.

Acanthodactylus ahmaddisii

Jordanian Fringe-toed Lizard

Jordanische Fransenfingereidechse

Jordansk Frynsefingerfirben

2004 Acanthodactylus ahmaddisii Werner

Remarks: Synonym of beershebensis, according to www.lacerta.de.
Distribution: Jordan.

Acanthodactylus arabicus

Arabian Fringe-toed Lizard, (Yemen Spiny-footed Lizard)

Arabische Fransenfingereidechse

Arabisk Frynsefingerfirben

1918 Acanthodactylus cantoris var. arabicus Boulenger
Acanthodactylus arabicus Salvador 1982

Distribution: Yemen.

Acanthodactylus aureus

Golden Fringe-toed Lizard, Western Saharan Fringe-toed Lizard

Goldene Fransenfingereidechse

Gyldent Frynsefingerfirben

1903 Acanthodactylus scutellatus aureus Günther
Acanthodactylus inornatus aureus Böhme 1978
Acanthodactylus aureus Salvador 1982

Remarks: Validity confirmed by Crochet, Geniez & Ineich (2003).
Distribution: Mauritania, Morocco, Senegal, Western Sahara.

Acanthodactylus bedriagai

Algerian Fringe-toed Lizard

Algerische Fransenfingereidechse

Algerisk Frynsefingerfirben

1881 Acanthodactylus bedriagai Lataste
Acanthodactylus pardalis bedriagae Boulenger 1918 [emendation]

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of pardalis (e.g., Berre 1989).
Distribution: Algeria, Tunisia.

Acanthodactylus beershebensis

Israeli Fringe-toed Lizard, Be'er Sheva Fringe-toed Lizard

Israelische Fransenfingereidechse

Israelsk Frynsefingerfirben

1999 Acanthodactylus beershebensis Moravec, Baha el Din, Seligmann, Sivan & Werner

Distribution: Israel.

Acanthodactylus blanci

Tunisian Fringe-toed Lizard

Tunesische Fransenfingereidechse

Tunesisk Frynsefingerfirben

1901 Acanthodactylus blanci Doumergue
Acanthodactylus vulgaris blanci Boulenger 1918
Acanthodactylus savignyi blanci Welch 1982

Remarks: Not mentioned for Algeria by Rouag & Ziane (2023).
Distribution: Algeria, Tunisia.

Acanthodactylus blanfordii

Makran Fringe-toed Lizard, (Blanford's Fringe-toed Lizard, Red-tailed Sand Lizard)

Makran Fransenfingereidechse


1918 Acanthodactylus cantoris var. blanfordii Boulenger
Acanthodactylus blanfordi Salvador 1982

Remarks: Although reported from India (e.g., Das 1996), there are no confirmed records from the country (Venugopal 2010).
Distribution: Afghanistan, Iran, Oman, Pakistan, United Arab Emirates.

Acanthodactylus boskianus

Afro-Arabian Fringe-toed Lizard, (Bosc's Fringe-toed Lizard, Bosc's Sandracer, Daudin's Fringe-toed Lizard)

Afro-Arabische Fransenfingereidechse

Afro-arabisk Frynsefingerfirben

1802 Lacerta boskiana Daudin
Acanthodactylus boskianus Wiegmann 1834
1829 Lacerta aspera Audouin (Salvador 1982)
Acanthodactylus boskianus asper Boulenger 1921
1838 Scapteira inaequalis Gray (Salvador 1982)
1878 Acanthodactylus boskianus syriacus Boettger (Tamar, Carranza, Sindaco, Moravec & Meiri 2014)
Acanthodactylus syriacus Boulenger 1881
Acanthodactylus schreiberi syriacus Boulenger 1918
1899 Lacerta longicauda Hemprich & Ehrenberg (Salvador 1982)
1919 Acanthodactylus boskianus euphraticus Boulenger (Salvador 1982)
2012 Acanthodactylus boskianus khattensis Trape & Trape in Trape, Trape & Chirio
2012 Acanthodactylus boskianus nigeriensis Trape, Chirio & Geniez in Trape, Trape & Chirio

Other common names:
khattensis: Mauritanian Fringe-toed Lizard
nigeriensis: Niger Fringe-toed Lizard
Distribution: Algeria, Chad, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Eritrea (incl. Dahlak Archipelago), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Western Sahara, Yemen.

Acanthodactylus boskianus
© Henrik Bringsøe

Acanthodactylus boueti

Benin Fringe-toed Lizard, (Bouet's Fringe-toed Lizard)



1917 Acanthodactylus boueti Chabanaud

Distribution: Benin, Ghana, Nigeria, Togo.

Acanthodactylus busacki

South Moroccan Fringe-toed Lizard, (Busack's Fringe-toed Lizard)

Südmarokkanische Fransenfingereidechse

Sydmarokkansk Frynsefingerfirben

1982 Acanthodactylus busacki Salvador

Remarks: Previously included the populations now assigned to margaritae. Records from Algeria and Mauritania refer to populations of uncertain taxonomic status (Tamar, Geniez, Brito & Crochet 2017).
Distribution: Morocco, Western Sahara.

Acanthodactylus cantoris

Indian Fringe-toed Lizard, (Cantor's Fringe-toed Lizard, Blue-tailed Sand Lizard)

Indische Fransenfingereidechse

Indisk Frynsefingerfirben

1864 Acanthodactylus cantoris Günther

Distribution: Afghanistan, India (Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh), Iran, Pakistan.

Acanthodactylus dumerilii

Lesser Fringe-toed Lizard, Small Fringe-toed Lizard, (Dumeril's Fringe-toed Lizard)

Kleine Fransenfingereidechse


1829 Lacerta dumerilii Milne-Edwards
Meroles dumerilii Gray 1838
Acanthodactylus scutellatus dumerili Lataste 1885
Acanthodactylus dumerili Salvador 1982
1885 Acanthodactylus scutellatus exiguus Lataste (Salvador 1982)
Acanthodactylus dumerili exiguus Bischoff 1990
1918 Acanthodactylus senegalensis Chabanaud (syn. Liz, Rödder, Gonçalves, Velo-Antón, Tarroso, Geniez, Crochet, Carvalho & Brito 2022)

Other common names:
senegalensis: Senegal Fringe-toed Lizard
Remarks: Arnold (1983) did not regard Salvador's (1982) separation of dumerili from scutellatus as sufficiently documented. Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch (1996) regarded dumerili and longipes as semispecies of the scutellatus species group. Validity of dumerili as a distinct species confirmed by Crochet, Geniez & Ineich (2003).
Distribution: Algeria, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Morocco, Senegal, Tunisia, Western Sahara.

Acanthodactylus erythrurus

Red-tailed Fringe-toed Lizard

Europäische Fransenfingereidechse

Almindeligt Frynsefingerfirben, Europæisk Frynsefingerfirben

1834 Lacerta erythrura Schinz [1833-35]
Acanthodactylus erythrurus Mertens 1925
1839 Acanthodactylus vulgaris Duméril & Bibron (Salvador 1982)
1845 Acanthodactylus belli Gray (Salvador 1982)
Acanthodactylus erythrurus belli Salvador 1982
1892 Acanthodactylus vulgaris bocagei Ferreira (Salvador 1982)
1901 Acanthodactylus vulgaris ksourensis Doumergue (Salvador 1982)
1901 Acanthodactylus vulgaris mauritanicus Doumergue (Salvador 1982)
1918 Acanthodactylus vulgaris atlantica Boulenger (Salvador 1982)
Acanthodactylus erythrurus atlanticus Bons & Geniez 1995
1839 Acanthodactylus lineomaculatus Dumeril & Bibron (Tamar, Carranza, Sindaco, Moravec, Trape & Meiri 2016)
Acanthodactylus vulgaris lineomaculatus Lataste 1885
Acanthodactylus erythrurus lineomaculatus Salvador 1982
1901 Acanthodactylus vulgaris tingitanus Doumergue (Salvador 1982, by implication)

Other common names:
lineomaculatus: Spot-lined Fringe-toed Lizard, Coastal Common Fringe-toed Lizard
Remarks: Bons & Geniez (1995) revalidated lineomaculatus as a separate species, however, Harris, Batista & Carretero (2004) and Fonseca, Brito, Paulo, Carretero & Harris (2009) questioned its validity. Tamar, Carranza, Sindaco, Moravec, Trape & Meiri (2016) synonymized lineomaculatus again with erythrurus.
Extinct in: Gibraltar.
Distribution: Algeria, Morocco, Portugal, Spain.

Acanthodactylus erythrurus
© Henrik Bringsøe

Acanthodactylus felicis

South Arabian Fringe-toed Lizard

Südarabische Fransenfingereidechse

Sydarabisk Frynsefingerfirben

1980 Acanthodactylus felicis Arnold

Remarks: A. yemenicus may be a synonym of felicis (Arnold 1983, 1986).
Distribution: Oman, Yemen.

Acanthodactylus gongrorhynchatus

Saudi Fringe-toed Lizard

Saudische Fransenfingereidechse

Saudisk Frynsefingerfirben

1967 Acanthodactylus gongrorhynchatus Leviton & Anderson

Remarks: Likely to occur in, but not yet recorded from Oman, according to Gardner (2013), although he in the same book listed the species in the checklist for the country, presumably in error.
Distribution: Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates.

Acanthodactylus grandis

Giant Fringe-toed Lizard



1909 Acanthodactylus grandis Boulenger
1918 Acanthodactylus fraseri Boulenger (Salvador 1982)

Distribution: Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria.

Acanthodactylus guineensis

Guinea Fringe-toed Lizard



1887 Eremias guineensis Boulenger
Taenieremias guineensis Szczerbak 1975
Mesalina guineensis Welch 1982
Acanthodactylus guineensis Salvador 1982
1949 Eremias benueensis Monard (Meinig & Böhme 2002)

Distribution: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria.

Acanthodactylus haasi

Eastern Saudi Fringe-toed Lizard, (Haas' Fringe-toed Lizard)

Ostsaudische Fransenfingereidechse

Østsaudisk Frynsefingerfirben

1967 Acanthodactylus haasi Leviton & Anderson

Distribution: Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates.

Acanthodactylus hardyi

Hirmas Fringe-toed Lizard



1957 Acanthodactylus scutellatus hardyi Haas
Acanthodactylus hardyi Arnold 1989

Remarks: Harris & Arnold (2000) revalidated hardyi as a separate species, although already Arnold (1989) treated it as distinct. This has been followed by some authors (e.g., Disi 2011), but Crochet, Geniez & Ineich (2003) did not consider this elevation justified. Validity as a separate species was supported by Tamar, Carranza, Sindaco, Moravec, Trape & Meiri (2016). Not mentioned for Saudi Arabia by Aloufi, Amr, Baker & Hamidan (2019).
Distribution: Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia.

Acanthodactylus harranensis

Harran Fringe-toed Lizard



2001 Acanthodactylus harranensis Baran

Distribution: Turkey.

Acanthodactylus ilgazi

Malatya Fringe-toed Lizard



2021 Acanthodactylus ilgazi Kurnaz & Sahin

Distribution: Turkey.

Acanthodactylus khamirensis

Khamir Fringe-toed Lizard



2013 Acanthodactylus khamirensis Heidari, Rastegar-Pouyani, Rastegar-Pouyani & Rajabizadeh

Distribution: Iran.

Acanthodactylus lacrymae

Tislit Fringe-toed Lizard



2020 Acanthodactylus lacrymae Miralles, Geniez, Beddek, Mendez Aranda, Brito, Leblois & Crochet

Distribution: Morocco.

Acanthodactylus longipes

Long-footed Fringe-toed Lizard, Long Fringe-toed Lizard


Langfodet Frynsefingerfirben

1918 Acanthodactylus scutellatus var. longipes Boulenger
Acanthodactylus longipes Bons & Girot 1963
1964 Acanthodactylus longipes panousei Bons & Girot (Salvador 1982)

Remarks: Berre (1989) regarded this species as a synonym of scutellatus. Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch (1996) regarded dumerili and longipes as semispecies of the scutellatus species group. Validity of longipes as a distinct species confirmed by Crochet, Geniez & Ineich (2003). Older records from east of the Nile as well as some records from west of the Nile refer to aegyptius (Baha el Din 2007; Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008).
Distribution: Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Tunisia.

Acanthodactylus maculatus

Mottled Fringe-toed Lizard, Spotted Leopard Fringe-toed Lizard, Spotted Fringe-toed Lizard

Gefleckte Fransenfingereidechse

Plettet Frynsefingerfirben

1838 Scapteira maculata Gray
Acanthodactylus pardalis maculatus Boulenger 1918
Acanthodactylus maculatus Salvador 1982
1859 Zootoca deserti Günther (Salvador 1982)
1901 Acanthodactylus pardalis intermedius Doumergue (Salvador 1982)
1918 Acanthodactylus pardalis latastii Boulenger (Salvador 1982)
1999 Acanthodactylus mechriguensis Nouira & Blanc (Fonseca, Brito, Rebelo, Kalboussi, Larbes, Carretero & Harris 2008)

Distribution: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.

Acanthodactylus margaritae

North Moroccan Fringe-toed Lizard

Nordmarokkanische Fransenfingereidechse

Nordmarokkansk Frynsefingerfirben

2017 Acanthodactylus margaritae Tamar, Geniez, Brito & Crochet

Remarks: Previously regarded as a population of busacki (Tamar, Geniez, Brito & Crochet 2017).
Distribution: Morocco.

Acanthodactylus masirae

Masirah Fringe-toed Lizard



1980 Acanthodactylus masirae Arnold

Distribution: Oman (incl. Masirah), Yemen.

Acanthodactylus micropholis

Yellow-tailed Fringe-toed Lizard, (Yellow-tailed Sand Lizard)


Gulhalet Frynsefingerfirben

1874 Acanthodactylus micropholis Blanford

Distribution: Iran, Pakistan.

Acanthodactylus montanus

Mountain Fringe-toed Lizard



2020 Acanthodactylus montanus Miralles, Geniez, Beddek, Mendez Aranda, Brito, Leblois & Crochet

Distribution: Morocco.

Acanthodactylus nilsoni

Persian Fringe-toed Lizard

Persische Fransenfingereidechse

Persisk Frynsefingerfirben

1998 Acanthodactylus nilsoni Rastegar-Pouyani

Distribution: Iran.

Acanthodactylus opheodurus

Snake-tailed Fringe-toed Lizard, (Arnold's Fringe-toed Lizard)


Slangehalet Frynsefingerfirben

1980 Acanthodactylus opheodurus Arnold

Remarks: Although reported from Syria (Disi & Böhme 1996), presence in the country remains doubtful (Martens 1997).
Distribution: Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen.

Acanthodactylus orientalis

Syrian Fringe-toed Lizard, Oriental Fringe-toed Lizard

Syrische Fransenfingereidechse

Syrisk Frynsefingerfirben

1936 Acanthodactylus tristrami orientalis Angel
Acanthodactylus orientalis Arnold 1983
1939 Acanthodactylus tristrami iracensis Schmidt (Arnold 1983)

Remarks: Regarded as a synonym of tristrami by Salvador (1982), but as a full species by Arnold (1983, 1986).
Distribution: Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria.

Acanthodactylus pardalis

Leopard Fringe-toed Lizard, Egyptian Leopard Lizard



1823 Lacerta pardalis Lichtenstein
Acanthodactylus pardalis Boulenger 1887
1829 Lacerta deserti Milne-Edwards (Salvador 1982)

Remarks: Now restricted to Egypt and Libya, but status of pardalis and related species is still unclear (Fonseca, Brito, Rebelo, Kalboussi, Larbes, Carretero & Harris 2008; Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013). Records from the Middle East (e.g., Werner 1939) refer to other species (Salvador 1982; Martens 1997; Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008). Some authors have included bedriagai (e.g., Berre 1989), maculatus, and busacki in pardalis.
Distribution: Egypt, Libya.

Acanthodactylus robustus

Robust Fringe-toed Lizard, Stout-bodied Fringe-toed Lizard

Robuste Fransenfingereidechse

Robust Frynsefingerfirben

1929 Acanthodactylus robustus Werner

Distribution: Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria.

Acanthodactylus savignyi

Algerian Coastal Fringe-toed Lizard


Algerisk Kyst-frynsefingerfirben

1829 Lacerta savignyi Audouin
Acanthodactylus savignyi Vaillant 1882
1885 Acanthodactylus vaillanti Lataste (Salvador 1982)
1901 Acanthodactylus savignyi oranensis Doumergue (Salvador 1982)

Remarks: Previously included blanci. Tunisian records (e.g., Arnold 1983) refer to blanci (Welch 1982).
Distribution: Algeria.

Acanthodactylus schmidti

Middle East Fringe-toed Lizard, (Schmidt's Fringe-toed Lizard)

Mittelöstliche Fransenfingereidechse


1957 Acanthodactylus cantoris schmidti Haas
Acanthodactylus schmidti Arnold 1980

Distribution: Bahrain, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen.

Acanthodactylus schreiberi

Levant Fringe-toed Lizard, (Schreiber's Fringe-toed Lizard)

Levantische Fransenfingereidechse

Levantisk Frynsefingerfirben

1878 Acanthodactylus savignyi var. schreiberi Boulenger
Acanthodactylus schreiberi Boulenger 1881
Acanthodactylus boskianus schreiberi Welch 1983
2012 Acanthodactylus schreiberi ataturi Yalcinkaya & Gocmen

Remarks: Now restricted to Cyprus and Turkey (Tamar, Carranza, Sindaco, Moravec & Meiri 2014). Previously included the subspecies syriacus (e.g., Salvador 1982), now considered a synonym of A. boskianus asper. Records from Israel and Lebanon refer to asper. Franzen (1998) suspected the Anatolian records to be introductions, but Sindaco, Venchi, Carpaneto & Bologna (2000) considered them to be relict populations. They were later recognized as a separate subspecies (ataturi). Records from Iraq (e.g., Reed & Marx 1959) refer to boskianus (Salvador 1982).
Distribution: Cyprus, Turkey.

Acanthodactylus scutellatus

Nidua Fringe-toed Lizard, Nidua Lizard, (Mottled Fringe-toed Lizard)

Gepunktete Fransenfingereidechse

Prikket Frynsefingerfirben

1829 Lacerta scutellata Audouin
Acanthodactylus scutellatus Duméril & Bibron 1839
1838 Scapteira inornata Gray (Salvador 1982)
Acanthodactylus inornatus Gray 1845
Acanthodactylus scutellatus inornatus Boulenger 1918
1918 Acanthodactylus scutellatus audouini Boulenger (Salvador 1982)
Acanthodactylus audouini Martínez-del-Mármol, Harris, Geniez, Pous & Salvi 2019

Other common names:
audouini: Audouin's Fringe-toed Lizard
Remarks: Previously included dumerili, hardyi, and longipes. Martínez-del-Mármol, Harris, Geniez, Pous & Salvi (2019) regarded audouini as a separate species, but without discussion. Erroneously reported from Syria (Martens 1997).
Distribution: Algeria, Chad, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tunisia.

Acanthodactylus scutellatus
© Henrik Bringsøe

Acanthodactylus spinicaudus

Spiny-tailed Fringe-toed Lizard


Tornhalet Frynsefingerfirben

1901 Acanthodactylus pardalis var. spinicauda Doumergue
Acanthodactylus spinicauda Bons 1962

Distribution: Algeria.

Acanthodactylus taghitensis

Taghit Fringe-toed Lizard



1995 Acanthodactylus taghitensis Geniez & Foucart

Distribution: Algeria, Mauritania.

Acanthodactylus tilburyi

Riyadh Fringe-toed Lizard, (Tilbury's Fringe-toed Lizard)



1986 Acanthodactylus tilburyi Arnold

Distribution: Jordan, Saudi Arabia.

Acanthodactylus tristrami

Lebanese Fringe-toed Lizard, (Tristram's Fringe-toed Lizard)

Libanesische Fransenfingereidechse

Libanesisk Frynsefingerfirben

1864 Zootoca tristrami Günther
Acanthodactylus tristrami Boulenger 1881
1869 Acanthodactylus dorsalis Peters (Salvador 1982)

Remarks: Records from Iraq (e.g., Khalaf 1959; Salvador 1982) refer to orientalis (Leviton, Anderson, Adler & Minton 1992).
Distribution: Jordan, Lebanon, Syria.

Acanthodactylus yemenicus

Yemen Fringe-toed Lizard

Jemenitischer Fransenfingereidechse

Yemenitisk Frynsefingerfirben

1982 Acanthodactylus yemenicus Salvador

Remarks: Possibly a synonym of felicis (Arnold 1983, 1986).
Distribution: Yemen.

Acanthodactylus zagrosicus

Zagros Fringe-toed Lizard



2021 Acanthodactylus zagrosicus Mozaffari, Mohammadi, Saberi-Pirooz & Ahmadzadeh

Distribution: Iran.