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Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: May 12th, 2024.

Taxonomy of the family Scincidae
Bibliography of the genus Chalcides
Biodiversity of the family Scincidae


Cylindrical Skinks, Barrel Skinks


Nordlige Valseskinker

1768 Chalcides Laurenti (type species: Chalcides tridactyla Laurenti 1768)
1816 Zygnis Oken [nomen rejectum] (ICZN: Opinion 417 (19??))
1830 Gongylus Wagler [not Gongylus Thunberg 1815] (type species: Lacerta ocellata Forskål 1775; syn. Smith 1935)
1830 Sphenops Wagler (type species: Sphenops capistratus Wagler 1830; syn. Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo 2007)
1839 Heteromeles Dumeril & Bibron (type species: Heteromeles mauritanicus Dumeril & Bibron 1839; syn. Smith 1935)
1856 Anisoterma Dumeril (type species: Anisoterma sphenopsiforme Dumeril 1856; syn. Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo 2007 [by implication])
1876 Allodactylus Lataste & Rochebrune (type species: Allodactylus de l'Islei Lataste 1876; syn. Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo 2007 [by implication])
1883 Gongyloseps Boettger (type species: Seps mionecton Boettger 1873; syn. Smith 1935)
1892 Dicloniscus Cope (type species: Chalcides guentheri Boulenger 1887; syn. Shea 2021)
Contents: 33 species, of which 13 (39.4%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Includes Sphenops, previously regarded as a synonym of Chalcides (e.g., Boulenger 1887), later revalidated (Pasteur & Bons 1960), but synonymized again with Chalcides by Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo (2007 ["2008"]).
Distribution: Canary Islands, S. Europe, N. Africa, Middle East, S. India, Sri Lanka.
Reported from: Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Eritrea (incl. Dahlak Archipelago), Ethiopia, France, Gambia, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Cyclades Islands, Dodecanese Islands (incl. Rhodes)], Crete), Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India (Kerala), Iran, Israel, Italy, (incl. Elba, Pantelleria, Pelagie Islands [Lampedusa, Linosa Islands], Sicily), Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Portugal, Qatar, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Spain (incl. Canary Islands [Fuerteventura, Gomera, Gran Canaria, Hierro, Lanzarote, Tenerife]), Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Western Sahara, Yemen.

Chalcides armitagei

Gambian Cylindrical Skink, (Armitage's Skink)

Gambianischer Walzenskink

Gambiansk Valseskink

1922 Chalcides armitagei Boulenger

Remarks: The year of the original description has sometimes been erroneously quoted as 1896, 1920 or 1921 (e.g., Pasteur 1981; Frank & Ramus 1995).
Distribution: Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal.

Chalcides bedriagai

Spanish Cylindrical Skink, (Bedriaga's Skink)

Iberischer Walzenskink, Spanischer Walzenskink

Spansk Valseskink

1880 Gongylus ocellatus bedriagai Bosca
Chalcides bedriagae Boulenger 1887
1966 Chalcides bedriagai montanus Valverde [not Chalcides ocellatus montanus Werner 1931] (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
1966 Chalcides bedriagai pistaciae Valverde (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
Chalcides pistaciae Valverde 1966
1968 Chalcides bedriagai albaredae Valverde [substitute name for Chalcides bedriagai montanus Valverde 1966] (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
1997 Chalcides bedriagai cobosii Valverde

Remarks: Tentatively includes Chalcides bedriagae pistaciae Valverde 1967, a taxon which status remain uncertain (Arnold 2002; Speybroeck & Crochet 2007).
Distribution: Gibraltar, Portugal, Spain.

Chalcides bedriagai
© Henrik Bringsøe

Chalcides bottegi

Ethiopian Cylindrical Skink, (Bottego's Bronze Skink)

Äthiopischer Walzenskink

Etiopisk Valseskink

1898 Chalcides bottegi Boulenger
Chalcides ragazzii bottegi Pasteur 1981
Chalcides ocellatus bottegi Drewes 1972

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Greenbaum, Campbell & Raxworthy (2006).
Distribution: Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan, Sudan.

Chalcides boulengeri

Tunisian Cylindrical Skink, (Boulenger's Sand Skink, Boulenger's Skink)

Tunesischer Keilschleiche

Tunesisk Valseskink

1896 Chalcides boulengeri Anderson
Chalcides sepsoides var. boulengeri Lépiney & Németh 1949
Sphenops boulengeri Pasteur & Bons 1960

Remarks: Brandley, Schmitz & Reeder (2005) reported boulengeri from the Senegal/Mauritania border, but this record probably refers to delislei or sphenopsiformis (Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo 2007 ["2008"]).
Distribution: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.

Chalcides chalcides

Italian Three-toed Cylindrical Skink, Italian Three-toed Skink

Italienische Erzschleiche, Östliche Erzschleiche


1758 Lacerta chalcides Linnaeus
Chalcides chalcides Stejneger 1936
1768 Chalcides tridactyla Laurenti (Busack 1986)
1801 Chamaesaura chalkis Schneider (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
1820 Seps chalcidica Merrem [substitute name for Lacerta chalcides Linnaeus 1758] (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1828 Seps vittata Leuckart (Caputo, Lanza & Palmieri 1995)
Chalcides chalcides vittatus Klausewitz 1954
1833 Seps concolor Metaxa (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
Chalcides chalcides concolor Klausewiz 1954
1833 Seps quadrilineata Metaxa (Böhme (ed.) 1981)

Remarks: Previously included mertensi and striatus (e.g., Mertens & Wermuth 1960). Records from Portugal, Spain and France refer to striatus. Busack (1986) referred all North African records to mertensi, but Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo 2008) referred the Tunisian and Libyan populations as well as the introduced, Sardinian population to C. c. vittatus.
Introduced to: Italy (Sardinia).
Distribution: Algeria, Italy (incl. Elba, Sicily), Libya, San Marino, Tunisia.

Chalcides coeruleopunctatus

Blue-spotted Canarian Skink

Südlicher Kanarenskink

Blåplettet Valseskink

1975 Chalcides viridanus coeruleopunctatus Salvador
Chalcides coeruleopunctatus Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo 2007 ["2008"]
2023 Chalcides coeruleopunctatus garciamarquezi Mateo, Geniez, Veiret & López-Jurado

Distribution: Canary Islands (Gomera, Hierro).

Chalcides colosii

Riffian Skink



1957 Chalcides ocellatus colosii Lanza [substitute name for Chalcides ocellatus var. vittatus Boulenger 1890]
Chalcides colosii Pasteur 1981
1890 Chalcides ocellatus var. vittatus Boulenger [not Seps vittata Leuckart 1828] (Lanza 1957)

Distribution: Morocco.

Chalcides delislei

Central Saharan Three-fingered Skink, (De l'Isle's Sand Skink, De l'Isle's Wedge-snouted Skink, De l'Isle's Skink, Lataste's Three-fingered Skink)

Zentralsaharischer Keilschleiche

Centralsaharisk Valseskink

1876 Allodactylus de l'Islei Lataste
Chalcides delislei Boulenger 1887
Sphenops delislei Pasteur & Bons 1960

Distribution: Algeria, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, Western Sahara.

Chalcides ebneri

North Moroccan Cylindrical Skink, (Ebner's Skink)

Nordmarokkanischer Walzenskink

Nordmarokkansk Valseskink

1931 Chalcides ocellatus vittatus ebneri forma n. Werner
Chalcides ebneri Pasteur 1981

Distribution: Morocco.

Chalcides guentheri

Levant Cylindrical Skink, (Günther's Cylindrical Skink)

Levantischer Walzenskink

Levantisk Valseskink

1887 Chalcides guentheri Boulenger

Remarks: A single record (Werner 1983) from Cairo (Egypt) is obviously a locality error (Baha el Din 2006).
Distribution: Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria.

Chalcides humilis

Saharan Ocellated Skink, Saharan Bronze Skink

Gefleckter Sahara-Walzenskink

Plettet Sahara-valseskink

1896 Chalcides ocellatus var. humilis Boulenger
Chalcides cf. humilis Baha el Din 2006
1936 Chalcides ocellatus tassiliensis Angel

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym or subspecies of ocellatus. Tentatively revalidated as a separate species by Baha el Din (2006).
Distribution: Egypt, Eritrea (incl. Dahlak Archipelago), Ethiopia, Sudan.

Chalcides lanzai

Central Atlas Cylindrical Skink



1967 Chalcides ocellatus lanzai Pasteur
Chalcides lanzai Caputo & Mellado 1992
Chalcides montanus lanzai Mateo, Geniez & Bons 1995

Remarks: Variously regarded as a subspecies of montanus (e.g., Mateo, Geniez & Bons 1995) or as a distinct species (e.g., Caputo & Mellado 1992; Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo 2007 ["2008"]).
Distribution: Morocco.

Chalcides levitoni

Southwest Arabian Cylindrical Skink

Südwestarabischer Walzenskink

Sydvestarabisk Valseskink

1978 Chalcides levitoni Pasteur

Distribution: Saudi Arabia.

Chalcides manueli

Moroccan Ocellated Skink

Marokkanischer Gefleckter Walzenskink

Marokkansk Plettet Valseskink

1935 Chalcides ocellatus manueli Hediger
Chalcides manueli Caputo & Mellado 1992

Distribution: Morocco.

Chalcides mauritanicus

Algerian Two-toed Cylindrical Skink, Two-fingered Skink

Algerischer Zweizehiger Walzenskink

Algiersk Totået Valseskink

1839 Heteromeles mauritanicus Dumeril & Bibron
Chalcides mauritanicus Boulenger 1887

Distribution: Algeria, Morocco.

Chalcides mertensi

Algerian Three-toed Cylindrical Skink

Algerischer Dreizehiger Walzenskink

Algiersk Tretået Valseskink

1954 Chalcides chalcides mertensi Klausewitz
Chalcides mertensi Busack 1986

Distribution: Algeria, Tunisia.

Chalcides minutus

Lesser Three-toed Cylindrical Skink, Small Three-toed Skink

Kleiner Dreizehiger Walzenskink

Lille Tretået Valseskink

1993 Chalcides minutus Caputo

Distribution: Algeria, Morocco.

Chalcides mionecton

Mionecton Skink


Marokkansk Lavlands-valseskink

1873 Seps mionecton Boettger
Chalcides mionecton Boettger 1887
1917 Chalcides trifasciatus Chabanaud (Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch 1996)
Chalcides mionecton trifasciatus Hediger 1935
1962 ? Chalcides atlantis Pasteur (Pasteur 1981; Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch 1996)

Distribution: Morocco.

Chalcides mionecton
© Rune Midtgaard

Chalcides montanus

Moroccan Mountain Cylindrical Skink, Moroccan Mountain Skink

Marokkanischer Gebirgs-Walzenskink

Marokkansk Bjergvalseskink

1931 Chalcides ocellatus montanus Werner
Chalcides montanus Caputo & Mellado 1992
2024 Chalcides montanus pallaryi Geniez, Lutgen, Hingrat, Rivière, Beddek, Peyre & Crochet

Remarks: Previously included lanzai.
Distribution: Morocco.

Chalcides ocellatus

Mediterranean Ocellated Skink, Ocellated Skink, Ocellated Barrel Skink, Ocellated Bronze Skink, Eyed Cylindrical Skink, Eyed Skink

Gefleckter Walzenskink

Europæisk Plettet Valseskink

1775 Lacerta ocellata Forskål
Scincus ocellatus Olivier 1801
Tiliqua ocellata Cuvier 1829
Gongylus ocellatus Wagler 1830
Seps ocellatus Günther 1871
Chalcides ocellatus Boulenger 1887
1789 Lacerta tiligugu Gmelin (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu Boulenger 1890
1801 Scincus tirus Rafinesque (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
1801 Scincus variegatus Schneider (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
1833 Scincus thyro Metaxa (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1839 Tiliqua microcephala Gray (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
1882 Gongylus ocellatus var. vulgaris Bedriaga (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
1897 Lygosoma akeleyi Meek (Parker 1942)
1915 Chalcides ocellatus var. nigerrima Krausse (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
1920 Chalcides ocellatus var. linosae Boulenger (Böhme (ed.) 1981; Mateo, Geniez & Bons 1995)
1921 Chalcides ocellatus linosanus Mertens (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
1931 Chalcides ocellatus subtypicus Werner (Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch 1996)
1954 Chalcides ocellatus sacchii Lanza
1954 Chalcides ocellatus zavattarii Lanza
2024 Chalcides ocellatus pallaryi Geniez, Lutgen, Hingrat, Rivière, Beddek, Peyre & Crochet

Remarks: Previously included humilis. Taxonomic status of a record from Sri Lanka (Karunarathna, Wickramasinghe, Samarawickrama & Munindradasa 2008, as "cf. ocellatus") is uncertain.
Introduced to: Italy (mainland, Sardinia), USA (Arizona, Florida).
Distribution: Algeria, Chad, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Eritrea, Ethiopia, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Cyclades Islands, Dodecanese Islands (incl. Rhodes)], Crete), Iran, Israel, Italy (incl. Pantelleria, Pelagie Islands [Lampedusa, Linosa Islands], Sicily), Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Western Sahara, Yemen.

Chalcides ocellatus
© Henrik Bringsøe

Chalcides parallelus

Algerian Five-toed Cylindrical Skink, (Chafarina's Skink)

Algerischer Fünfzehiger Walzenskink

Algiersk Femtået Valseskink

1901 Gongylus ocellatus var. parallelus Doumergue
Chalcides parallelus Mateo, Geniez & Bons 1995
1992 Chalcides ghiarai Caputo & Mellado (Mateo, Geniez & Bons 1995)

Distribution: Algeria, Morocco.

Chalcides pentadactylus

Indian Cylindrical Skink, Indian Earless Skink

Indischer Walzenskink

Indisk Valseskink

1870 Sphenocephalus ? pentadactylus Beddome
Chalcides pentadactylus Boulenger 1890

Remarks: Not mentioned by Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo (2007 ["2008"]). Status of pentadactylus is uncertain, and presence in India needs confirmation (Venugopal 2010; Palot 2015).
Distribution: India (Kerala).

Chalcides polylepis

Many-scaled Cylindrical Skink, Multiscaled Skink, Many-scaled Skink, Moroccan Skink

Vielschuppiger Walzenskink, (Marokkanischer Walzenskink)

Mangeskællet Valseskink

1890 Chalcides ocellatus var. polylepis Boulenger
Chalcides polylepis Lanza 1957

Remarks: Previously included simonyi (formerly known as C. polylepis occidentalis), now regarded as a separate species. Records from the Canary Islands refer to simonyi (Bischoff (ed.) 1998).
Distribution: Morocco, Western Sahara.

Chalcides pseudostriatus

Moroccan Three-toed Cylindrical Skink

Marokkanischer Dreizehiger Walzenskink

Marokkansk Tretået Valseskink

1993 Chalcides pseudostriatus Caputo

Distribution: Morocco.

Chalcides pulchellus

West African Cylindrical Skink

Westafrikanischer Walzenskink

Vestafrikansk Valseskink

1906 Chalcides pulchellus Mocquard
Chalcides thierryi pulchellus Schätti 1986

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of thierryi (e.g., Schätti 1986). Now considered a distinct species (e.g., Greenbaum 1985; Greenbaum, Campbell & Raxworthy 2006; Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo 2007 ["2008"]).
Distribution: Burkina Faso, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Senegal.

Chalcides ragazzii

Eritrean Cylindrical Skink, (Ragazzi's Bronze Skink)

Eritreischer Walzenskink

Eritreisk Valseskink

1890 Chalcides ocellatus ragazzii Boulenger
Chalcides ragazzii Pasteur 1981

Remarks: Previously included bottegi. Now restricted to the African Horn and adjacent areas. Records from West Africa and south-central Sahara refer to ocellatus. Records from Kenya refer to bottegi. Records from Sudan may refer to either bottegi or ocellatus (Greenbaum, Campbell & Raxworthy 2006).
Distribution: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia.

Chalcides sepsoides

Wedge-snouted Cylindrical Skink, Wedge-snouted Skink, (Audouin's Sand Skink, Saharan Sphenops)

Östlicher Keilschleiche

Kilesnudet Valseskink

1829 Scincus sepsoides Audouin
Chalcides sepoides [sic] Boulenger 1887
Sphenops sepoides [sic] Panousse 1954
Chalcides sepsoides Johann 1981
1830 Sphenops capistratus Wagler (Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch 1996)

Remarks: Records from Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia (e.g., Berre 1989), refer to boulengeri, sometimes regarded as conspecific with sepsoides.
Distribution: Egypt (incl. Sinai), Israel, Jordan, Libya.

Chalcides sepsoides
© Henrik Bringsøe

Chalcides sexlineatus

Gran Canaria Six-lined Skink, Six-lined Skink, Gran Canaria Skink

Gestreifter Kanarenskink, Gran Canaria-Skink

Seksstribet Valseskink

1891 Chalcides viridanus var. sexlineata Steindachner
Chalcides sexlineatus Boettger & Müller 1914
1891 Chalcides viridanus var. bistriata Steindachner (Bischoff (ed.) 1998)
Chalcides sexlineatus bistriatus Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo 2007 ["2008"]
Chalcides bistriatus Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008
1891 Chalcides viridanus var. bistriata Farbvar. nigrescens Steindachner (Bischoff (ed.) 1998)
1891 Chalcides viridanus var. bistriata Farbvar. pallens Steindachner (Bischoff (ed.) 1998)
1891 Chalcides viridanus var. simonyi Steindachner [not Chalcides simonyi Steindachner 1891] (Bischoff (ed.) 1998)

Remarks: Pasteur (1981) included Madeira in the distribution, but this was not confirmed by Bischoff (ed.) (1998). Sindaco & Jeremchenko (2008) regarded bistriatus (including pallens) as a separate species.
Introduced to: Canary Islands (Palma).
Distribution: Canary Islands (Gran Canaria).

Chalcides simonyi

East Canarian Skink, Purpurarian Skink, Fuerteventura Skink

Ostkanarenskink, Purpurarienskink

Østkanarisk Valseskink

1891 Chalcides simonyi Steindachner [not Chalcides viridanus var. simonyi Steindachner 1891]
1900 Chalcides ocellatus var. occidentalis Steindachner [substitute name for Chalcides simonyi Steindachner 1891] (Bischoff (ed.) 1998)
Chalcides polylepis occidentalis Lanza 1957
Chalcides occidentalis Pasteur, Keymar & Perret 1988

Remarks: This species was formerly known as C. occidentalis (or C. polylepis occidentalis), but the name simonyi has priority (Bischoff (ed.) 1998).
Distribution: Canary Islands (Fuerteventura, Lanzarote).

Chalcides sphenopsiformis

Senegal Sand Skink, Senegal Skink


Senegalesisk Valseskink

1856 Anisoterma sphenopsiforme Dumeril
Chalcides sphenopsiformis Boulenger 1887
Sphenops sphenopsiformis Pasteur & Bons 1960
1871 Sphenops meridionalis Günther (Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch 1996)
1937 Chalcides moseri Ahl (Caputo & Lanza 1992)

Other common names:
moseri: (Santorini Skink)
Distribution: Mauritania, Morocco, Senegal, Western Sahara.

Chalcides striatus

Western Three-toed Cylindrical Skink, Western Three-toed Skink, Iberian Three-toed Skink

Westlicher Erzschleiche

Stribet Valseskink

1829 Zygnis striata Cuvier
Chalcides striatus Mertens & Müller 1940
Chalcides chalcides striatus Klausewitz 1954
1828 Seps lineatus Leuckart [not Seps lineatus Laurenti 1768] (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of chalcides (e.g., Mertens & Wermuth 1960). Caputo & Odierna (1992) suggested specific recognition of striatus.
Distribution: France, Gibraltar, Italy, Portugal, Spain.

Chalcides striatus
© Henrik Bringsøe

Chalcides thierryi

Togo Cylindrical Skink, (Thierry's Cylindrical Skink)


Togolesisk Valseskink

1901 Chalcides bottegi var. thierryi Tornier
Chalcides thierryi Neumann 1905
Chalcides ocellatus thierryi Loveridge 1952

Remarks: Previously included pulchellus.
Distribution: Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Nigeria, Togo.

Chalcides viridanus

West Canarian Skink, Green Skink, (Canarian Skink)

Nördlicher Kanarenskink

Vestkanarisk Valseskink

1851 Gongylus viridanus Gravenhorst
Chalcides viridanus Boulenger 1887

Remarks: Previously included coeruleopunctatus. Records from Madeira (Boulenger 1887; Pasteur 1981) and Morocco (Bons 1972) are regarded as erroneous (Bischoff (ed.) 1998).
Distribution: Canary Islands (Tenerife).