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Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: October 31st, 2023.

Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Dolichophis
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae


Greater Whip Snakes

Grosse Pfeilnattern

Store Pilsnoge

1843 Eremiophis Fitzinger (type species: Coluber trabalis Pallas 1814; syn. Williams & Wallach 1989)
1868 Dolichophis Gistel (type species: Coluber caspius Gmelin 1789)
Contents: 4 species, none of which are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Previously included in the genus Coluber (e.g., Mertens & Wermuth 1960).
Distribution: SE. Europe, Middle East.
Reported from: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt (Sinai), Georgia, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Dodecanese Islands (incl. Rhodes), Sporades Islands]), Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Syria, Turkey (incl. European Turkey), Turkmenistan, Ukraine (incl. Crimea).

Dolichophis andreanus

Zagros Whip Snake, (Andreas' Racer, Persian Whip Snake)

Zagros-Zornnatter, (Andreas-Zornnatter)


1917 Zamenis andreana Werner
Coluber andreanus Rajabizadeh & Rastegar-Pouyani 2006
Hierophis andreanus Torki 2010
Dolichophis andreanus Rajabizadeh, Pyron, Nazarov, Poyarkov, Adriaens & Herrel 2020
1920 Zamenis hotsoni Boulenger (Schätti 2001)

Remarks: Schätti (2001) tentatively regarded Platyceps najadum as the closest relative of andreanus. Rastegar-Pouyani, Kami, Rajabzadeh, Shafiei & Anderson (2008) placed the species in the genus Zamenis, and Torki (2010) in the genus Hierophis. Most recently, Rajabizadeh, Pyron, Nazarov, Poyarkov, Adriaens & Herrel (2020) reassigned andreanus to the genus Dolichophis.
Distribution: Iran, Iraq.

Dolichophis caspius

Caspian Whip Snake, Yellow-bellied Wood Snake, European Whip Snake, (Large Whip Snake)

Kaspische Pfeilnatter, Kaspische Zornnatter, Kaspische Springnatter

Kaspisk Pilsnog

1789 Coluber caspius Gmelin
Hierophis caspius Fitzinger 1853
Zamenis atrovirens caspius Günther 1858
Zamenis gemonensis caspius Boulenger 1893
Zamenis cespius [sic?] Werner 1920
Coluber jugularis caspius Mertens & Müller 1928
Haemorrhois jugularis caspius [sic] Welch 1983
Dolichophis caspius Nagy, Schmidtler, Joger & Wink 2004 [by implication]
1799 Coluber jaculator Pallas (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1801 Coluber bicolor Güldenstedt [not Coluber bicolor Reuss 1834] (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1814 Coluber acontistes Pallas (Böhme (ed.) 1993)
1814 Coluber thermalis Pallas (Böhme (ed.) 1993)
1811 Coluber trabalis Pallas [substitute name for Coluber caspius Gmelin 1789] (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
Zamenis gemonensis trabalis Boettger 1889
1832 Coluber griseo-coeruleus Dwigubskij (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1972 Coluber caspius eiselti Zinner [invalid name] (Bader, Riegler & Grillitsch 2009)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of jugularis. Taxonomic status of records from Iraq (Rhadi, Mohammed, Rastegar-Pouyani, Rastegar-Pouyani & Yousefkhani 2017, as "cf. caspius") is uncertain.
Distribution: Albania, Azerbaijan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Dodecanese Islands, Sporades Islands]), Hungary, Iran, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Turkey (incl. European Turkey), Ukraine (incl. Crimea).

Dolichophis caspius
© Henrik Bringsøe

Dolichophis jugularis

Large Whip Snake, Persian Large Whip Snake, (Green Whip Snake)

Grosse Pfeilnatter


1758 Coluber jugularis Linnaeus
Haemorrhois jugularis [sic] Welch 1980
Eremiophis jugularis Welch 1983
Hierophis jugularis Schätti 1988
Dolichophis jugularis Nagy, Schmidtler, Joger & Wink 2004 [by implication]
1880 Zamenis viridiflavus asiana Boettger (Schätti 1988)
Zamenis gemonensis asianus Boulenger 1893
Coluber jugularis asianus Müller & Wettstein 1933
1972 Coluber jugularis cypriacus Zinner
Dolichophis jugularis cypriacus Göcmen, Atatür, Budak, Bahar, Yildiz & Alpagut-Keskin 2009
2012 Dolichophis jugularis zinneri Cattaneo
2016 Dolichophis mesopotamicus Afrasiab, Mohammad & Hussein (nomen dubium, following The Reptile Database, viewed 1 April 2023)

Remarks: Previously included caspius and schmidti.
Distribution: Cyprus, Egypt (Sinai), Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Dodecanese Islands (incl. Rhodes)]), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey.

Dolichophis jugularis
© Henrik Bringsøe

Dolichophis schmidti

Red-bellied Whip Snake, Armenian Whip Snake, Red-bellied Wood Snake, (Schmidt's Whip Snake)


Sydvestasiatisk Rødbuget Pilsnog

1832 Coluber erythrogaster Fischer [not Coluber erythrogaster Forster 1771]
1909 Coluber schmidti Nikolsky
Zamenis gemonensis schmidti Nikolsky 1961
Coluber jugularis schmidti Müller 1939
Coluber caspius schmidti Zinner 1972
Haemorrhois jugularis schmidti [sic] Welch 1983
Hierophis schmidti Schätti 1988
Dolichophis schmidti Nagy, Schmidtler, Joger & Wink 2004 [by implication]

Remarks: Validity as separate species confirmed by Abu Baker, Rifai, Joger, Nagy, Wink & Amr (2002). Claimed to occur in Uzbekistan by some authors (e.g., Venchi & Sindaco 2007; Arakelyan, Danielyan, Corti, Sindaco & Leviton 2011; Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013), but in their range map of both the species and the genus, the latter authors do not include the country. According to other authors (e.g., Szczerbak 2003; Ananjeva, Orlov, Khalikov, Darevsky, Ryabov & Barabanov 2006), the species is not found in Uzbekistan. Taxonomic status of records from Iraq (Rhadi, Mohammed, Rastegar-Pouyani, Rastegar-Pouyani & Yousefkhani 2017, as "cf. schmidti") is uncertain.
Distribution: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Russia, Syria, Turkey, Turkmenistan.