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Taxonomy of the family Viperidae
Bibliography of the genus Bothrops
Biodiversity of the family Viperidae








Genus
Bothrops

American Lanceheads

Amerikanische Lanzenottern, (Waldlanzenottern [syn. Bothriopsis])

Egentlige Lanseslanger

1824 Bothrops Wagler (type species: Bothrops megaera Wagler 1824; see comments regarding type species in David & Ineich 1999)
1861 Bothriopsis Peters (type species: Bothriopsis quadriscutatus Peters 1861; syn. Carrasco, Mattoni, Leynaud & Scrocchi 2012)
1881 Rhinocerophis Garman (type species: Rhinocerophis nasus Garman 1881; syn. Campbell & Lamar 2004; Carrasco, Mattoni, Leynaud & Scrocchi 2012)
2009 Bothropoides Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson (type species: Bothrops neuwiedi Wagler 1824; syn. Carrasco, Mattoni, Leynaud & Scrocchi 2012)
Contents: 48 species, of which 26 (54.2%) are endemic.
Other common names:
Bothriopsis: Forest Pitvipers
Remarks: Previously included Bothriechis, Cerrophidion, Ophryacus, Porthidium, and Bothrocophias andianus. Also Bothriopsis was considered a valid genus for some time. This division of Bothrops (sensu lato) has been questioned by some authors (e.g., Cadle in Campbell & Brodie 1992; Dewynter, Marty, Blanc, Gaucher, Vidal, Frétey, Massary & Fouquet 2008). Furthermore, Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson (2009) described a new genus, Bothropoides, and revalidated Rhinocerophis as a separate genus, however, this arrangement was subsequently rejected (Carrasco, Leynaud & Scrocchi 2010; Carrasco, Mattoni, Leynaud & Scrocchi 2012). The latter authors synonymized Bothriopsis, Bothropoides, and Rhinocerophis again with Bothrops, and transferred andianus to the genus Bothrocophias.
Distribution: Mexico, Central America, South America, West Indies.
Reported from: Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo [incl. Ilha dos Franceses], Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo [incl. Ilha de Alcatrazes, Sao Sebastiao, Vitoria, Queimada Grande], Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia (incl. Gorgona Island), Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Martinique, Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan), Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Lucia, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Trinidad), Uruguay, Venezuela.

Bothrops alcatraz

Alcatrazes Lancehead

Alcatrazes-Lanzenotter

Alcatrazes-lanseslange

2002 Bothrops alcatraz Marques, Martins & Sazima
Bothropoides alcatraz Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson 2009

Distribution: Brazil (Sao Paulo: Ilha de Alcatrazes).


Bothrops alternatus

Urutu, Halfmoon Lancehead

Halbmond-Lanzenotter, Urutu

Halvmåne-lanseslange

1849 Craspedocephalus brasiliensis Gray [not Coluber brasiliensis Lacepede 1789 (rejected)] (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1854 Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril
Trigonocephalus alternatus Jan 1859
Lachesis alternatus Boulenger 1896
Trimeresurus alternatus Pope 1944-45
Rhinocerophis alternatus Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson 2009
1925 Lachesis inaequalis Magalhães (Campbell & Lamar 2004)

Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo), Paraguay, Uruguay.


Bothrops ammodytoides

Patagonian Lancehead, Yararanata

Patagonien-Lanzenotter

Patagonsik Lanseslange

1873 Bothrops ammodytoides Leybold
Lachesis ammodytoides Boulenger 1896
Rhinocerophis ammodytoides Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson 2009
1881 Rhinocerophis nasus Garman (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Bothrops nasus Berg 1884
1885 Bothrops patagonicus Müller (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1895 Bothrops Burmeisteri Koslowsky (Campbell & Lamar 2004)

Distribution: Argentina.


Bothrops asper

Central American Lancehead, Terciopelo

Rauschuppige Lanzenotter, Terciopelo-Lanzenotter

Nordlig Lanseslange

1845 Trigonocephalus colombiensis Hallowell (status uncertain; Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Bothrops colombiensis Hoge 1966
1868 Trigonocephalus xanthogrammus Cope (Campbell & Lamar 2004; see remarks)
Lachesis xanthogrammus Boulenger 1896
Bothrops xanthogramma Amaral 1930
Bothrops atrox xanthogramma Schätti & Kramer 1993
1883 Trigonocephalus asper Garman
Bothrops asper Recinos 1913
Bothrops atrox asper Smith & Taylor 1945
Bothrops andianus asper Mehrtens 1987
Bothrops lanceolatus asper Sandner-Montilla 1990
1885 Bothrops atrox septentrionalis Müller (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1889 Bothrops quadriscutatus Posada-Arango (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1981 Bothrops lanceolatus aidae Sandner-Montilla (Rivas, Molina, Ugueto, Barros, Barrio-Amorós & Kok 2012)
Bothrops atrox aidae Vanzolini 1986
1990 Bothrops lanceolatus nacaritae Sandner-Montilla (Rivas, Molina, Ugueto, Barros, Barrio-Amorós & Kok 2012)

Other common names:
nacaritae: Carabobo Lancehead
Remarks: Previously confused with atrox (see Golay & al. 1993; David & Ineich 1999; Campbell & Lamar 2004). See remarks under atrox regarding the presence of asper in Trinidad. The taxa aidae and nacaritae were regarded as synonyms of atrox by Campbell & Lamar (2004), but probably in error for asper, since both aidae and nacaritae were described from within the range of asper (Rivas, Molina, Ugueto, Barros, Barrio-Amorós & Kok 2012). The latter authors moved the two taxa to the synonymy of asper. Some authors still use colombiensis as a valid taxon (e.g., Mumaw, González & Fernández 2015), but without justification (Rivas, Molina, Ugueto, Barros, Barrio-Amorós & Kok 2012). Although xanthogrammus has nomenclatural priority over asper, Campbell & Lamar (2004) suggested the continued use of asper, because of its widespread and frequent use.
Distribution: Belize, Colombia (incl. Gorgona Island), Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan), Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Venezuela.


Bothrops atrox

Common Lancehead, Amazonian Lancehead, South American Lancehead, Caicaca

Gewöhnliche Lanzenotter

Almindelig Lanseslange, Fer-de-lance

1758 Coluber atrox Linnaeus
Trigonocephalus atrox Schinz 1822
Vipera atrox Schinz 1822
Craspedocephalus atrox Fitzinger 1826
Bothrops atrox Wagler 1830
1788 Coluber ambiguus Gmelin (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1803 Vipera Weigeli Daudin (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Vipera atrox weigeli Schinz 1822
Craspedocephalus weigeli Fitzinger 1826
1821 Cophias holosericeus Wied-Neuwied (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Trigonocephalus holosericeus Schinz 1822
1824 Bothrops Furia Wagler (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1824 Bothrops tessellatus Wagler (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Bothrops atrox tessellatus Jan & Sordelli 1875
1849 Bothrops affinis Gray (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1934 Bothrops Amarali Briceño-Rossi (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1979 Bothrops isabelae Sandner-Montilla (Markezich & Taphorn 1993; Campbell & Lamar 2004)

Remarks: Previously confused with atrox (see Golay & al. 1993; David & Ineich 1999; Campbell & Lamar 2004). It seems there is uncertainty as to which of the species atrox or asper that occurs in Trinidad (Murphy 1997). The Trinidad population is herein assigned to atrox, following Emsley (1977), Boos (2001), and David, Dobiey & Vogel (2018), and also based on the distributions of the two species, of which Trinidad is is closer to other atrox populations than those of asper. Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson (2009) showed that the taxon isabelae falls together with atrox, with a seemingly low genetic distance, but the authors nevertheless listed isabelae in their list of species, apparently regarding it as a valid species. Also Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014) listed isabelae as a valid species. It was not regarded as a valid species by David, Dobiey & Vogel (2018).
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Ceara, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Rondonia, Roraima, Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia (incl. Gorgona Island), Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Trinidad), Venezuela.


Bothrops ayerbei

Sotará Lancehead, (Ayerbe's Lancehead)

Sotará-Lanzenotter

Sotará-lanseslange

2010 Bothrops ayerbei Folleco-Fernandez

Remarks: This species was not mentioned by Carrasco, Mattoni, Leynaud & Scrocchi (2012).
Distribution: Colombia.


Bothrops barnetti

Northern Peruvian Lancehead, (Barnett's Lancehead)

Nordperuvianische Lanzenotter

Nordperuviansk Lanseslange

1938 Bothrops barnetti Parker
Trimeresurus barnetti Schmidt & Walker 1943

Distribution: Peru.


Bothrops bilineatus

Two-striped Forest Pitviper

Grüne Jararaca-Lanzenotter

Tostribet Lanseslange

1825 Cophias bilineatus Wied
Trigonocephalus bilineatus Schinz 1822
Bothrops bilineatus Wagler 1830
Craspedocephalus bilineatus Schlegel 1837
Lachesis bilineatus Boulenger 1896
Bothriopsis bilineatus Campbell & Lamar 1989
Bothriechis bilineata Schätti, Kramer & Touzet 1990
1870 Trigonocephalus arboreus Cope "1869" (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1966 Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus Hoge "1965"
Bothriopsis bilineatus smaragdinus Campbell & Lamar 1989
Bothriechis bilineata smaragdina Schätti, Kramer & Touzet 1990

Other common names:
bilineata: Eastern Two-striped Forest Pitviper
smaragdinus: Western Two-striped Forest Pitviper, Emerald Two-striped Forest Pitviper
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Espirito Santo, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Para, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rondonia, Roraima), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Venezuela.


Bothrops brazili

Velvety Lancehead, (Brazil's Lancehead)

Samt-Lanzenotter

Fløjls-lanseslange

1953 Bothrops brazili Hoge

Remarks: Reported from Bolivia (Campbell & Lamar 2004; Pincheira-Donoso 2002), however, it has not yet been collected in the country, although it may prove to be present (Harvey, Aparicio & Gonzales 2005).
Distribution: Brazil (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para, Rondonia, Roraima), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Venezuela.


Bothrops caribbaeus

Saint Lucia Lancehead

Saint Lucia-Lanzenotter

Saint Lucia-lanseslange

1842 Bothrops Sabinii Gray [suppressed] (Wüster 2000; Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1842 Bothrops subscutatus Gray [suppressed] (Wüster 2000; Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1887 Trigonocephalus caribbaeus Garman
Bothrops caribbaeus Lazell 1964
Bothrops lanceolatus caribbaeus Sandner-Montilla 1990

Introduced to: Martinique.
Distribution: Saint Lucia.


Bothrops chloromelas

Inca Forest Pitviper

Inka-Lanzenotter

Inka-lanseslange

1912 Lachesis chloromelas Boulenger
Bothrops chloromelas Meneses 1974
Bothriopsis chloromelas Campbell & Lamar 2004

Remarks: This species was previously treated as a brightly patterned form of oligolepis (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970). Revalidated by Harvey, Aparicio & Gonzales (2005), although already Campbell & Lamar (2004) treated it as a valid species.
Distribution: Peru.


Bothrops cotiara

Southeast Brazilian Lancehead, Cotiara

Südostbrasilianische Lanzenotter

Sydøstbrasiliansk Lanseslange

1913 Lachesis cotiara Gomes
Bothrops cotiara Amaral 1925
Rhinocerophis cotiara Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson 2009

Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo).


Bothrops diporus

Chaco Lancehead

Chaco-Lanzenotter

Chaco-lanseslange

1862 Bothrops diporus Cope
Bothrops neuwiedi diporus Cochran 1961
Bothropoides diporus Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson 2009
1930 Bothrops neuwiedii meridionalis Amaral [not Bothrops atrox meridionalis Müller] (Campbell & Lamar 2004)

Remarks: Not mentioned for Mato Grosso do Sul by Ferreira, Terra, Piatti, Delatorre, Strüssmann, Béda, Kawashita-Ribeiro, Landgref-Filho, Aoki, Campos, Souza, Ávila, Duleba, Martins, Rita & Albuquerque (2017).
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo), Paraguay.


Bothrops erythromelas

Caatinga Lancehead, Red and Black Pitviper

Rotschwarze Lanzenotter

Caatinga-lanseslange

1923 Bothrops erythromelas Amaral
Bothropoides erythromelas Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson 2009

Distribution: Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceara, Maranhao, Minas Gerais, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Sergipe).


Bothrops fonsecai

Rio de Janeiro Lancehead, (Fonseca's Lancehead)

Rio de Janeiro-Lanzenotter

Rio de Janeiro-lanseslange

1959 Bothrops fonsecai Hoge & Belluomini
Rhinocerophis fonsecai Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson 2009

Distribution: Brazil (Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo).


Bothrops insularis

Golden Lancehead, Island Lancehead, Queimada Grande Pitviper

Insel-Lanzenotter, Queimada Grande-Lanzenotter

Gylden Lanseslange

1922 Lachesis insularis Amaral
Bothrops insularis Amaral 1930
Trimeresurus insularis Hoge 1930
Bothropoides insularis Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson 2009

Remarks: Correct publication year of the original description is 1922, not 1921 (Vanzolini 1977; Costa & Bérnils 2015).
Distribution: Brazil (Sao Paulo: Queimada Grande).


Bothrops itapetiningae

Itapetininga Lancehead, (São Paulo Lancehead)

Itapetininga-Lanzenotter

Itapetininga-lanseslange

1907 Lachesis itapetiningae Boulenger
Lachesis neuwiedi itapetiningae Ihering 1910
Bothrops itapetiningae Amaral 1930
Rhinocerophis itapetiningae Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson 2009

Remarks: Presence in Rio Grande do Sul needs confirmation (Campbell & Lamar 2004).
Distribution: Brazil (Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Parana, Sao Paulo).


Bothrops jararaca

Jararaca

Jararaca-Lanzenotter

Jararaca-lanseslange

1824 Cophias jararaca Wied
Trigonocephalus jararaca Schlegel 1837
Bothrops jararaca Golay & al. 1993
Bothropoides jararaca Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson 2009
1824 Bothrops leucostigma Wagler (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1858 Craspedocephalus brasiliensis Günther [not Coluber brasiliensis Lacepede 1789 (rejected)] (Campbell & Lamar 2004)

Remarks: Hoogmoed & Gruber (1983) removed Bothrops leucostigma Wagler 1824 from the synonymy of jararaca. When Campbell & Lamar (2004) included Mato Grosso in the distribution of jararaca, they clearly confused Mato Grosso with Mato Grosso do Sul, which is confirmed by looking at their range map. However, the species is not included for the state herein, following Ferreira, Terra, Piatti, Delatorre, Strüssmann, Béda, Kawashita-Ribeiro, Landgref-Filho, Aoki, Campos, Souza, Ávila, Duleba, Martins, Rita & Albuquerque (2017), who did not mention it in their checklist.
Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Bahia, Espirito Santo, Goias, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo [incl. Sao Sebastiao]), Paraguay.


Bothrops jararacussu

Jararacussu

Jararacussu-Lanzenotter

Jararacussu-lanseslange

1884 Bothrops jararacussu Lacerda
Lachesis atrox jararacussu Ihering 1911
Lachesis jararacucu Brazil 1914 [unjustified emendation]

Remarks: Reported from Bolivia (Campbell & Lamar 2004; Pincheira-Donoso 2002), but Bolivian specimens are based on misidentified sanctaecrucis, however, it may prove to be present in the country (Harvey, Aparicio & Gonzales 2005). When Campbell & Lamar (2004) included Mato Grosso in the distribution of jararacussu, they clearly confused Mato Grosso with Mato Grosso do Sul, which is confirmed by looking at their range map. However, the species is not included for the state herein, following Ferreira, Terra, Piatti, Delatorre, Strüssmann, Béda, Kawashita-Ribeiro, Landgref-Filho, Aoki, Campos, Souza, Ávila, Duleba, Martins, Rita & Albuquerque (2017), who did not mention it in their checklist.
Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Bahia, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo [incl. Sao Sebastiao]), Paraguay.


Bothrops jonathani

Cochabamba Lancehead

Cochabamba-Lanzenotter

Cochabamba-lanseslange

1994 Bothrops jonathani Harvey
Rhinocerophis jonathani Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson 2009

Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia.


Bothrops lanceolatus

Martinique Lancehead

Martinique-Lanzenotter

Martinique-lanseslange

1790 Coluber lanceolatus Bonnaterre
Vipera lanceolata Sonnini & Latreille 1801-02
Trigonocephalus lanceolatus Oppel 1811
Cophias lanceolatus Merrem 1820
Craspedocephalus lanceolatus Fitzinger 1826
Bothrops lanceolatus Wagler 1830
Lachesis lanceolatus Boulenger 1896
1798 Coluber hastatus Suckow (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1802 Coluber megaera Shaw (David & Ineich 1999)
1842 Bothrops cinereus Gray (Campbell & Lamar 2004)

Distribution: Martinique.


Bothrops leucurus

Bahia Lancehead, White-tailed Lancehead

Bahia-Lanzenotter

Bahia-lanseslange

1824 Bothrops leucurus Wagler
1824 Bothrops megaera Wagler [not Coluber megaera Shaw 1802] (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1948 Trimeresurus pradoi Hoge (Puorto, Salomão, Theakston, Thorpe, Warrell & Wüster 2001; Campbell & Lamar 2004)

Other common names:
pradoi: Prado's Lancehead
Distribution: Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Sergipe).


Bothrops lojanus

Lojan Lancehead

Loja-Lanzenotter

Loja-lanseslange

1930 Bothrops lojana Parker

Distribution: Ecuador, Peru.


Bothrops lutzi

Cerrado Lancehead, (Lutz's Lancehead)

Cerrado-Lanzenotter

Cerrado-lanseslange

1915 Lachesis lutzi Miranda-Ribeiro
Bothrops lutzi Amaral 1925
Bothrops neuwiedi lutzi Amaral 1930
Bothropoides lutzi Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson 2009
1923 Bothrops iglesiasi Amaral (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1925 Bothrops neuwiedii piauhyensis Amaral (Campbell & Lamar 2004)

Other common names:
iglesiasi: Sertão Lancehead
Distribution: Brazil (Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Goias, Maranhao, Minas Gerais, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Sergipe, Tocantins).


Bothrops marajoensis

Marajo Lancehead

Marajo-Lanzenotter

Marajo-lanseslange

1966 Bothrops marajoensis Hoge

Remarks: Status uncertain, closely related to atrox (Wüster, Thorpe & Puorto 1996).
Distribution: Brazil (Amapa, Para [incl. Marajo Island]).


Bothrops marmoratus

Marbled Lancehead

Marmor-Lanzenotter

Marmor-lanseslange

2008 Bothrops marmoratus Silva & Rodrigues

Distribution: Brazil (Distrito Federal, Goias, Minas Gerais, Tocantins).


Bothrops mattogrossensis

Mato Grosso Lancehead

Mato-Grosso-Lanzenotter

Mato Grosso-lanseslange

1925 Bothrops neuwiedii mattogrossensis Amaral
Bothrops mattogrossensis Campbell & Lamar 2004
Bothropoides mattogrossensis Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson 2009
1927 Bothrops neuwiedii boliviana Amaral (Campbell & Lamar 2004)

Remarks: Records from Peru (e.g., Campbell & Lamar 2004; Silva & Rodrigues 2008) refer to other, as yet undescribed species (David, Dobiey & Vogel 2018). Cacciali, Scott, Aquino-Ortiz, Fitzgerald & Smith (2016) tentatively regarded mattogrossensis as a synonym of pauloensis, pending further studies.
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Amazonas, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia, Sao Paulo, Tocantins), Paraguay.


Bothrops medusa

Venezuelan Forest Pitviper

Caracas-Wald-Lanzenotter

Caracas-lanseslange

1920 Lachesis medusa Sternfeld
Bothrops medusa Amaral 1930
Bothriopsis medusa Campbell & Lamar 1989
1976 Bothrops eneydae Sandner-Montilla (Campbell & Lamar 2004)

Distribution: Venezuela.


Bothrops monsignifer

Los Volcanes Lancehead

Los Volcanes-Lanzenotter

Los Volcanes-lanseslange

2019 Bothrops monsignifer Timms, Chaparro, Venegas, Salazar-Valenzuela, Scrocchi, Cuevas, Leynaud & Carrasco

Distribution: Bolivia, Peru.





Bothrops moojeni

Brazilian Lancehead

Brasilianische Lanzenotter

Brasiliansk Lanseslange

1966 Bothrops moojeni Hoge
Bothrops atrox moojeni Itoh, Tanaka, Mihashi & Yamashima 1987

Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Parana, Piaui, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), Paraguay.


Bothrops muriciensis

Murici Lancehead

Murici-Lanzenotter

Murici-lanseslange

2001 Bothrops muriciensis Ferrarezzi & Freire

Distribution: Brazil (Alagoas, Sergipe).


Bothrops neuwiedi

Eastern Brazilian Lancehead, (Neuwied's Lancehead)

Ostbrasilianische Lanzenotter

Østbrasiliansk Lanseslange

1824 Bothrops neuwiedi Wagler
Bothropoides neuwiedi Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson 2009
1872 Crotalus urutu Liais (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Bothrops urutu Lacerda 1884
Bothrops neuwiedi urutu Amaral 1937
1885 Bothrops atrox meridionalis Müller (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Bothrops neuwiedi meridionalis Hoge 1966
1925 Bothrops neuwiedii bahiensis Amaral (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1925 Bothrops neuwiedii goyazensis Amaral (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1925 Bothrops neuwiedii minasensis Amaral (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1925 Bothrops neuwiedii paranaensis Amaral (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1933 Bothrops neuwiedii fluminensis Amaral "1932" (Campbell & Lamar 2004)

Other common names:
bolivianus: Bolivian Neuwied's Lancehead, (Bolivian Lancehead)
goyasensis: Goias Lancehead
meridionalis: Southern Neuwied's Lancehead
paranaensis: Parana Lancehead
piauhyensis: Northern Neuwied's Lancehead
urutu: Painted Lancehead
Remarks: Presence in Paraguay is regarded herein as erroneous, following Cacciali, Scott, Aquino-Ortiz, Fitzgerald & Smith (2016), who did not include neuwiedii for the country, although reported by Trutnau, Monzel & Consul (2016), but without localities. Records from Mato Grosso do Sul need confirmation (Ferreira, Terra, Piatti, Delatorre, Strüssmann, Béda, Kawashita-Ribeiro, Landgref-Filho, Aoki, Campos, Souza, Ávila, Duleba, Martins, Rita & Albuquerque 2017).
Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Bahia, Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Paraiba, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Tocantins).


Bothrops oligolepis

Peruvian Forest Pitviper, (Inca Forest Pitviper)

Peruvianische Wald-Lanzenotter

Peruviansk Skovlanseslange

1901 Lachesis bilineatus oligolepis Werner
Bothrops oligolepis Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
Bothriechis oligolepis Schätti & Kramer 1993
Bothriopsis oligolepis Carrillo de Espinoza & Icochea 1995
1903 Lachesis peruvianus Boulenger (Campbell & Lamar 2004; Harvey, Aparicio & Gonzales 2005)
Bothrops peruviana Amaral 1930
Bothriopsis peruviana Campbell & Lamar 1989

Distribution: Bolivia, Peru.


Bothrops osbornei

Chimborazo Lancehead, (Osborne's Lancehead)

Chimborazo-Lanzenotter

Chimborazo-lanseslange

1991 Bothrops osbornei Freire-Lascano
1991 Bothriechis mahnerti Schätti & Kramer (Kuch 1997; Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Bothriechis punctatus mahnerti Schätti & Kramer 1993

Remarks: Now restricted to Ecuador. Records from Peru refer to an undescribed species (David, Dobiey & Vogel 2018).
Distribution: Ecuador.


Bothrops otavioi

Vitória Island Lancehead

Vitória-Lanzenotter

Vitória-lanseslange

2012 Bothrops otavioi Barbo, Grazziotin, Sazima, Martins & Sawaya

Distribution: Brazil (Sao Paulo: Vitoria).


Bothrops pauloensis

Black-faced Lancehead, (São Paulo Lancehead)

Schwarzmasken-Lanzenotter

Sortmasket Lanseslange

1925 Bothrops neuwiedii pauloensis Amaral
Bothrops pauloensis Campbell & Lamar 2004
Bothropoides pauloensis Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson 2009

Remarks: Cacciali, Scott, Aquino-Ortiz, Fitzgerald & Smith (2016) tentatively regarded mattogrossensis as a synonym of pauloensis, pending further studies. Included for Paraguay by Trutnau, Monzel & Consul (2016), but without localities. Cacciali, Scott, Aquino-Ortiz, Fitzgerald & Smith (2016) did not include neuwiedii for the country, so its presence in the country is herein provisionally regarded as in need of confirmation.
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Parana, Sao Paulo, Tocantins).


Bothrops pictus

Desert Lancehead

Wüsten-Lanzenotter

Ørkenlanseslange

1845 Lachesis picta Tschudi
Bothrops pictus Jan 1863
Trimeresurus pictus Schmidt & Walker 1943
1942 Bothrops roedingeri Mertens (Campbell & Lamar 1992).

Distribution: Peru.


Bothrops pirajai

Ilhéus Lancehead, (Piraja's Lancehead)

Ilhéus-Lanzenotter

Ilhéus-lanseslange

1923 Bothrops pirajai Amaral
1923 Bothrops neglecta Amaral (Campbell & Lamar 2004)

Remarks: Restricted to Bahia. Reports from other Brazilian states (Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Sergipe) are based on misidentifications (Freitas, Argôlo, Gonner & Veríssimo 2014).
Distribution: Brazil (Bahia).


Bothrops pubescens

Pampas Lancehead

Pampas-Lanzenotter

Pampas-lanseslange

1869 Trigonocephalus pubescens Cope
Bothrops neuwiedi pubescens Hoge 1959
Bothrops pubescens Campbell & Lamar 2004
Bothropoides pubescens Fenwick, Gutberlet, Evans & Parkinson 2009
1925 Bothrops neuwiedii riograndensis Amaral (Campbell & Lamar 2004)

Distribution: Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina), Uruguay.


Bothrops pulcher

Andean Forest Pitviper, Dusky Lancehead

Andes-Wald-Lanzenotter

Andes Skovlanseslange

1863 Trigonocephalus pulcher Peters "1862"
Lachesis pulcher Boulenger 1896
Bothrops pulcher Campbell & Lamar 1989
Bothriopsis pulchra McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999
1934 Bothrops albocarinata Shreve (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Bothriopsis albocarinata Campbell & Lamar 1989
Bothriechis albocarinata Schätti, Kramer & Touzet 1990
Bothriechis oligolepis albocarinatus Golay & al. 1993
1934 Bothrops alticola Parker (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Bothriopsis alticola Campbell & Lamar 1989
Bothriechis alticolus Schätti & Kramer 1991

Other common names:
albocarinata: Ecuadorian Forest Pitviper, White-keeled Pitviper
Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of oligolepis (Schätti & Kramer 1993).
Distribution: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru.


Bothrops punctatus

Chocoan Lancehead

Chocó-Lanzenotter

Chocó-lanseslange

1889 Thanatos montanus Posada Arango (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1896 Lachesis punctata Garcia
Bothrops punctatus Dunn 1844
Bothriopsis punctata Campbell & Lamar 1989
Bothriechis punctatus Schätti, Kramer & Touzet 1990
1910 Lachesis monticellii Peracca (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1923 Bothrops leptura Amaral (Campbell & Lamar 2004)

Distribution: Colombia, Ecuador, Panama.


Bothrops rhombeatus

Cauca Lancehead

Cauca-Lanzenotter

Cauca-lanseslange

1896 Bothrops rhombeatus García

Remarks: Previously regarded as a tentative synonym of Bothrocophias colombianus (e.g., Campbell & Lamar 2004). Revalidated by Folleco-Fernandez (2010). Not mentioned by Carrasco, Mattoni, Leynaud & Scrocchi (2012).
Distribution: Colombia.


Bothrops roedingeri

Huayuri Lancehead, (Rödinger's Lancehead)

Huayuri-Lanzenotter

Huayuri-lanseslange

1942 Bothrops roedingeri Mertens

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of pictus (Campbell & Lamar 1989).
Distribution: Peru.


Bothrops sanctaecrucis

Bolivian Lancehead

Bolivianische Lanzenotter

Boliviansk Lanseslange

1966 Bothrops sanctaecrucis Hoge

Distribution: Bolivia.


Bothrops sazimai

Franceses Island Lancehead, (Sazima's Lancehead)

Franceses-Lanzenotter

Franceses-lanseslange

2016 Bothrops sazimai Barbo, Gasparini, Almeida, Zaher, Grazziotin, Gusmao, Ferrarini & Sawaya

Distribution: Brazil (Espirito Santo: Ilha dos Franceses).


Bothrops sonene

Bahuaja-Sonene Lancehead

Bahuaja-Sonene-Lanzenotter

Bahuaja-Sonene-lanseslange

2019 Bothrops sonene Carrasco, Grazziotin, Farfán, Koch, Ochoa, Scrocchi, Leynaud & Chaparro

Distribution: Peru.





Bothrops taeniatus

Speckled Forest Pitviper

Gesprenkelte Wald-Lanzenotter

Spættet Skovlanseslange

1824 Bothrops taeniatus Wagler
Lachesis taeniatus Fitzinger 1826
Bothriopsis taeniata Campbell & Lamar 1989
Bothriechis taeniatus Schätti & Kramer 1991
1854 Bothrops Castelnaudi Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Atropos castelnautii [sic] Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854
Trigonocephalus castelnaudi Jan 1859
Teleuraspis castelnaui [sic] Cope 1860
Bothriopsis castelnavii [sic] Cope 1871
Thanatos castelnaudi Posada-Arango 1889
Thanatophis castelnaudi Posada-Arango 1889
Lachesis castelnaudi Boulenger 1896
1861 Bothriopsis quadriscutatus Peters (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1958 Bothrops lichenosus Roze
Bothrops castelnaudi lichenosus Hoge & Romano-Hoge 1981
Bothriopsis taeniata lichenosa Campbell & Lamar 1989
Bothriechis taeniatus lichenosus Golay & al. 1993

Other common names:
lichenosa: Lichen-like Forest Pitviper
taeniatus: Speckled Forest Pitviper
Remarks: Reported from Goias (e.g., Hoge & Romano Hoge 1981), which is herein provisionally referred to Tocantins, being closer to the known localities reported for the species. This was also suggested by Souza, Venâncio, Freitas, Souza & Veríssimo (2013), since Tocantins was part of Goias at the time of the report.
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para, Rondonia, Roraima, Tocantins), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Venezuela.


Bothrops venezuelensis

Venezuelan Lancehead

Venezuelanische Lanzenotter

Venezuelansk Lanseslange

1952 Bothrops venezuelensis Sandner-Montilla
Bothrops venezuelae Sandner-Montilla & Römer 1961 [substitute name or unjustified emendation] (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1961 Bothrops pifanoi Sandner-Montilla & Römer (Campbell & Lamar 2004)

Distribution: Colombia, Venezuela.