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© Rune Midtgaard


Taxonomy of the family Alligatoridae
Bibliography of the genus Caiman
Biodiversity of the family Alligatoridae








Genus
Caiman

True Caimans, Typical Caimans

Echte Kaimane, Brillenkaimane

Egentlige Kaimaner, Brillekaimaner

1825 Caiman Spix (type species: Caiman fissipes Spix 1825)
1825 Jacaretinga Spix (type species: Jacaretinga punctulatus Spix 1825; syn. Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1844 Jacare Gary (type species: Crocodilus yacare Daudin 1802; syn. Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1862 Cynosuchus Gray [not Cynosuchus Owen 1876 (Theromorpha)] (type species: Crocodilus latirostris Daudin 1802; syn. Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1868 Perosuchus Cope (type species: Perosuchus fuscus Cope 1868; syn. Wermuth & Mertens 1977)

Contents: 3 species, none of which are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Sometimes only two species (crocodilus, latirostris) are recognized, and yacare is regarded as a subspecies of crocodilus. An unidentified Caiman species has been reported from Martinique (Powell & Henderson (eds.) 2012), apparently a vagrant individual.
Introduced to: Cuba, (incl. Isla de la Juventud), Puerto Rico (incl. Vieques), USA (Florida, Georgia).
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro [incl. Ilha Grande Island], Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia (incl. San Andres, Providencia & Santa Catalina: San Andres], Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Martinique, Mexico (Chiapas, Yucatan), Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Tobago, Trinidad), Uruguay, Venezuela.

Caiman crocodilus

Common Caiman, Spectacled Caiman, (Narrow-snouted Spectacled Caiman)

Krokodilkaiman

Brillekaiman

1758 Lacerta crocodilus Linnaeus
Caiman crocodilus Andersson 1900
Jacaretinga crocodilus Werner 1933
1801 Crocodilus sclerops Schneider (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
Caiman sclerops Boulenger 1889
1802 Crocodilus caiman Daudin (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1867 Jacare hirticollis Gray (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1868 Perosuchus fuscus Cope (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
Caiman fuscus Schmidt 1928
Jacaretinga crocodilus fuscus Werner 1933
Caiman crocodilus fuscus Mertens 1943
1876 Alligator chiapasius Bocourt (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1955 Caiman sclerops apaporiensis Medem (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis Wermuth & Mertens 1961
1974 Caiman crocodilus mattogrossoiensis Fuchs (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)

Other common names:
apaporiensis: Apaporis River Caiman
fuscus: Brown Caiman
Remarks: Previously included yacare. A single record from 1928 from Carriacou, Grenada, apparently an occasional vagrant from the Orinoco (Daudin & de Silva 2007; Powell & Henderson (eds.) 2012). The species has also been reported from Vieques [Puerto Rico] (Powell & Henderson (eds.) 2012), apparently also a vagrant individual. According to Trutnau & Sommerlad (2006), the species also occurs in Bolivia, although Pincheira-Donoso (2002) did not include it for the country.
Introduced to: Cuba (incl. Isla de la Juventud), Puerto Rico (incl. Vieques), USA (Florida, Georgia, Iowa).
Distribution: Brazil (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Piaui, Rondonia, Roraima, Tocantins), Colombia (incl. San Andres), Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico (Chiapas, Yucatan), Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Tobago, Trinidad), Venezuela.

Caiman crocodilus
© Rune Midtgaard

Caiman latirostris

Broad-snouted Caiman, Broad-nosed Caiman, (Broad-snouted Spectacled Caiman)

Breitschnauzenkaiman

Bredsnudet Kaiman, Bredsnudet Brillekaiman

1801 Crocodilus latirostris Daudin
Caiman latirostris Boulenger 1889
1825 Caiman fissipes Spix (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1836 Alligator cynocephalus Dumeril & Bibron (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1965 Caiman latirostris chacoensis Freiberg & Carvalho (Crea, Merler & Quintana 1989)

Other common names:
chacoensis: Chaco Broad-nosed Caiman
latirostris: Common Broad-nosed Caiman
Remarks: Correct publication year of the original description is 1801, not 1802 (Vanzolini 1977; Costa & Bérnils 2015).
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia, Espirito Santo, Goias, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro [incl. Ilha Grande Island], Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Sergipe), Paraguay, Uruguay.


Caiman latirostris
© Rune Midtgaard

Caiman yacare

Paraguayan Caiman, Parana Caiman, Pantanal Caiman, Yacare

Brillenkaiman

Paraguay-kaiman

1801 Crocodilus yacare Daudin
Caiman yacare Schmidt 1928
Jacaretinga crocodilus jacare Werner 1933 [substitute name]
Caiman crocodilus yacare Müller & Hellmich 1936
1825 Jacaretinga punctulatus Spix (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1840 Champsa vallifrons Natterer (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1862 Jacare longiscutata Gray (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1862 Jacare ocellata Gray (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1867 Jacare multiscutata Gray (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1974 Caiman yacare medemi Donoso-Barros
1974 Caiman crocodilus paraquaiensis [incorrect original spelling] Fuchs (Medem 1983)
Caiman crocodilus paraguayensis Wermuth & Mertens 1977

Remarks: Sometimes regarded as a subspecies of crocodilus. Validity as a separate species confirmed by and Busack & Pandya (2001). Correct publication year of the original description is 1801, not 1802 (Vanzolini 1977; Costa & Bérnils 2015).
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia, São Paulo), Paraguay.